CHAP. II.

 

An account of the country on Delaware, and the North River, while the

first was in possession of the Dutch and Swedes.

 

From what has been said, it is evident that the colonies New-York,

New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, were included in the great patent,

last mentioned; but that becoming void, the crown was at liberty to

regrant the same to others; but it does not appear that any part of those

provinces was settled by virtue thereof; nor indeed was any distinct

discovery of them made, until many years afterwards. New-Jersey,

Pennsylvania, and other lands adjacent, notwithstanding the antient right

of the crown of England, deduced as aforesaid, had two pretenders to them;

the Dutch and the Swedes: The claim the former set up, was under colour of

a discovery made in the year 1609, by Henry Hudson, an Englishman,

commander of a ship called the Half-Moon, fitted out from Holland by the

East-India company, to discover by a north-west passage, a nearer way to

China: In this voyage he sailed up to the place now New-York, and up the

river, from him called Hudson's river; and returning sometime after to

Amsterdam, the Dutch pretended to have purchased the chart he made of the

American coast; and having obtained a patent from the states, in the year

1614, to trade to New-England, they settled in New-York, which they called

New-Netherland; and kept possession until Sir Samuel Argole, governor of

Virginia, disputed their title; alledging that the country having been

discovered by an Englishman, in right of his master, he could not suffer

it to be alienated from the crown, without the king's consent: He

therefore compelled the Dutch colony to submit to him, and to hold it

under the English: But sometime after a new governor coming from

Amsterdam, they not only neglected to pay their usual acknowledgement to

the governor of Virginia, but in the year 1623, fortified their colony, by

building several forts: One on the Delaware, (by them called South River)

near Gloucester, in New-Jersey, which they named Nassau; a second on

Hudson's, (the North River) in the province of New-York, which they named

Fort Orange; and a third on Connecticut river, (by them called the Fresh-

River) which they named the Hirsse of Good Hope. Hudson's River lying near

the sea, and the navigation esteemed less difficult than the other, their

settlements were chiefly on both sides of that river; at the entrance of

which, the town by them also called New Amsterdam, was built; so that by

the time the Swedes came into America, which was a few years after, they

had wholly quitted the land adjacent to the river Delaware.

 

The proceedings of the Dutch in building the forts, and in a manner taking

possession of the country, having been represented to king Charles the

first, his ambassadors at the Hague made such pressing instances to the

states, that they disowned having given any commission for what the Dutch

had done, and laid the blame on their East-India company. Upon this king

Charles gave a commission to Sir George Calvert, lately made lord

Baltimore;1 to possess and plant that part of America, now called

Maryland; and to Sir Edmond Loeyden, or Ployden, to plant the northern

parts, towards New-England. The Dutch afraid of the power of the English,

were willing to compound matters a second time; offering to leave their

plantations, in consideration of .2500 to be paid them for the charges

they had been at: But soon after, king Charles being involved in his

troubles, was hindered from supporting his colonies; they therefore not

only fell from their first proposals, but as was reported, furnished the

natives with arms, and taught them the use of them, that by their

assistance they might dispossess the English all around them.

 

Matters thus circumstanced, we shall leave them, in order to trace their

neighbours, the Swedes into America; the first settlement of whom,

according to their own account, was thus occasioned.2 In the reign of

Gustaphus Adolphus, and in the year 1626, an eminent merchant named

William Useling, gave a great character of this country, applauding it for

fruitful fertile land, abounding with all necessaries of life; and used

many arguments to persuade the Swedes to settle a colony here: These were

so prevalent, that Gustavus issued a proclamation at Stockholm, exhorting

his subjects to contribute to a company associated to the purpose

aforesaid, which was called the West-India company, confirmed by that

prince: In a general assembly the year following, sums of money were

raised to carry on the intended settlement, to which the king, the lords

of the council, the chief of his barons, knights, coronets, principal

officers in his militia, bishops, clergy, and diverse of the common people

of Swedeland, Finnland and Liffland, contributed; and responsible persons

were chosen to see what was propos'd put in execution, consisting of am

admiral, a vice-admiral, merchants, factors, commissaries, &c. and it was

concluded to get as many as they thought fit, of those who would

voluntarily ship themselves to America, to settle and cultivate a

colony.

 

In 1627, the Swedes and Finns accordingly came over hither: Their first

landing was at Cape Inlopen; the sight created a pleasure, and they named

it Paradise Point: Some time after they purchased of some Indians (but

whether of such as had the proper right to convey is not said) the land

from Cape Inlopen to the Falls of Delaware, on both sides the river, which

they called New-Swedeland Stream; and made presents to the Indian chiefs,

to obtain peaceable possession of the land so purchas'd: But the Dutch

continuing their pretensions, in 1630 one David Pietersz de Vries, their

countryman, built a fort within the capes of Delaware, on the west, about

two leagues from Cape Cornelius, at the place now Lewis-Town, then and at

present often called by the name of Hoarkill.

 

In 1631, the Swedes also built a fort on the west of Delaware, to which

they gave the name the ruins of it yet bears, Christeen.3 Here a small

town was laid out by Peter Lindstrom, their engineer, and here they first

settled; but this settlement was afterwards demolished by the Dutch.

 

On an island called Tennecum, sixteen miles above this town, the Swedes

erected another fort, which they named New Gottemburgh; and John Printz,

their governor, built a fine house, and other suitable accommodations;

planted an orchard, and called his settlement Printz's Hall: The principal

freemen had also their plantations on this island.

 

About this time the Swedes also built forts at Chester, and other places.

In the same year Chancellor Oxestiern, ambassador from Sweden, made

application to king Charles the first, to have the right the English

claimed by their being the first discoverers yielded up: it was, (as they

say,) the proof an uncertainty given up accordingly: They also said they

had purchased the pretence the Dutch claim'd by virtue of the prior

settlement, and buildings here; most of which were destroy'd before their

arrival.

 

If this be true, the Dutch it seems did not think proper long to abide by

their contract; but gave the Swedes disturbances, by encroaching on their

new settlement; and both of them join'd to dispossess the English, who

also attempted to settle the eastern side of Delaware; one Kieft, a

director under the states of Holland, assisted by the Swedes, drove the

English away, and hired the Swedes to keep them out: The Dutch complained,

that the Swedish governor judging this a fair opportunity; built fort

Elsinburgh on the place from whence the English had been driven, and from

thence used great freedom with their vessels, and all others bound up the

river, making them strike to the fort; from which they also sent men on

board to know whence the vessels came: This the Dutch deem'd exercising an

authority in a country not their own.4 But the Musketoes were so numerous,

the Swedes were unable to live here, and therefore removing, named the

place Musketoeburgh.

 

The Dutch seem to have had a very great opinion of the land near the

Delaware, and were under great apprehensions of being dispossessed by the

English, who they complained had diverse times attempted to settle about

that river and judged if they once got footing, they would soon secure

every part, so that neither Hollander nor Swede would have any thing to

say here; in particular they mention Sir Edmond Ploeyden, as claiming

property in the country, under a grant from king James the first, who they

alledge declined any dispute with them, but threatened to give the Swedes

a visit, in order to dispossess them.5

 

John Printz continued governor of the Swedes from his arrival until about

the year 1654, when he returned to Sweden, having first deputed his son-in-

law, John Papegoia, governor in his stead, who also sometime after

returned to his native country, and left the government to John Rysing: He

renewed the league of friendship with the English and Dutch in the

neighbourhood, and formally with the Indians; for this purpose a meeting

was held with the Sachems or Indian chiefs, at Printz's Hall, on Tenecum

island where a speech was made to them in behalf of the queen of Sweden,

expressing the desires the Swedes had to renew their friendship: The

Indians had before made complaint, that the Swedes had introduced much

evil amongst them; because many of the Indians since their coming were

dead; but the Swedes now making them considerable presents, these received

and divided amongst them, one of their chiefs, whose name was Noaman, made

a speech rebuking the rest for having spoken evil of the Swedes, and done

them harm; telling them they should do so no more, that the Swedes were a

good people, and thanking them for the presents, promised for the future,

that a more strict friendship should be observed betwixt them: That as

formerly they had been but one body and one heart, they should be

henceforward, as one head, as a token of which he waived both his hands as

if tying a strong knot, promising also that if they heard of any mischief

plotting against the Swedes, although it were midnight, they would give

them notice, and desired the like notice from the Swedes, if they

understood harm was intended them; the Swedes then desiring the Indians in

general would give them some signal that they all assented to what was

said; they gave a general shout of approbation, and in the conclusion were

entertained by the Swedes with victuals and drink; it was observed the

Indians kept this league faithfully: The Swedish ships sent to succour

this new colony, being obstructed in their intended voyage, by the

Spaniards; and the Swedes unable for want of money to keep their forts in

repair; gave their more powerful neighbours the Dutch, opportunity with

less danger to make encroachments upon them. Accordingly, in this year,

the Dutch who inhabited near Virginia and New-Sweden, gave the Swedes

disturbance, seeking to regain the forts they had formerly possessed: But

this by means of the Swede governor, with Peter Stuyvesant, who commanded

under the Dutch, at New-Amsterdam, was in appearance settled; yet in the

year following, the Dutch fitted out seven vessels from New-Amsterdam,

with six or seven hundred men; who in the summer, under the command of

Stuyvesant, came up Delaware, and took their first quarters at

Elsingburgh, where they made some Swedes prisoners: Next they sailed

towards a fort called Holy Trinity; having landed their men at a point

near the place, and intrenched themselves, they soon after went up to the

fort, and demanded a surrender, threatning what they would do in case of

refusal: After which, by treaty or otherwise, they gained possession, took

down the Swedes flag, and hoisted their own, securing all places with

their soldiers, and sending the Swedes they had taken prisoners, on board

their vessels: - An acquisition deemed considerable, because this fort was

looked upon as the key of New-Sweden.

 

On the second of September, they besieged Christiana fort and town; and

destroyed New Gottemburgh, with such houses as were without the fort;

plundering the inhabitants of what they had, and killing their cattle; the

Swedes endeavoured to perswade the Dutch to desist from these acts of

hostility, but to no purpose: After 14 days siege, they (in want of

ammunition) were obliged to surrender upon terms: That all the great guns

should be restored; to which purpose an inventory was taken; the Swedes

had also the gratification to march out of the fort, with their arms,

their colours flying, and drums beating. The officers and other principal

inhabitants among the Swedes, were carried prisoners to New-Amsterdam, and

thence to Holland; but the common people submitting to the Dutch, remained

in the country.

 

From this time 'till the year 1664, New-Sweden, and New-Netherland,

continued in possession, and under government of the Dutch; who, on the

island called Manhattan, at the mouth of Hudson's river, had built the

city, which they named New-Amsterdam (New York); and the river they

sometimes called the Great River: About 150 miles up, they built a fort,

and called it Orange, (Albany) from thence they drove a profitable trade

with the Indians, who came overland as far as from Quebec, to deal with

them. The first bounds of New-York, were Maryland on the south, the main

land as far as could be discovered westward, the river of Canada

northward, and New-England eastward: But the limits of this province, by

the grants afterwards, were reduced into a much narrower compass; that now

called New-Jersey, in virtue of one of those grants, was probably so

denominated, in compliment to Sir George Carteret, one of the proprietors,

and a Jersey man.6

 

1 "About the year 1620, while George Calvert, afterwards lord Baltimore,

was secretary of state to James 1st; he obtained a patent for him and his

heirs, to be absolute lord and proprietor (with the royalties of a count

Palatine) of the province of Avalon, in Newfoundland, which was so named

by him, from Avalon, in Somersetshire; wherein Glastonbury stands the

first fruits of christianity in Britain; as the other was in that part of

America, there he built a fine house, in Ferryland, and spent .25,000 in

advancing this new plantation: after the death of king James, he went

twice in person to Newfoundland - finding his plantation very much exposed

to the insults of the French, he was at last forced to abandon it:

whereupon he went over to Virginia, and after having viewed those parts,

came to England, and obtained from king Charles (who had as great a regard

and affection for him as king James) a patent to him and his heirs, for

Maryland - that king naming it in honour of his beloved queen Henrietta

Maria. Biogr. Britania, Art. "Geo. Calvert."

 

2 Hist. of Swedeland in America, by Thomas Companius Holm, printed at

Stockholm anno 1702.

 

3 Near Wilmington, it gives name to a noted creek there.

 

4 The account here is from a manuscript copy, said to be printed in

Holland, anno 1662, the original in the late Sir Hans Sloane's collection,

entitled, A brief account of New Netherland. - In 1683 the Dutch had a

meeting-place for religious worship at New-Castle; and the Swedes three,

one at Christeen, one at Tenecum, and one at Wicoco.

 

5 In 1648, a pamphlet was published, entitled, "A description of the

province of New Albion, and a direction for adventurers with small stock

to get two for one, and good land freely; and for gentlemen and all

servants, labourers and artificers, to live plentifully; and a former

description reprinted, of the healthiest, pleasantest and richest

plantation of New Albion in North Virginia, proved by thirteen witnesses;

together with a letter from master Robert Evelin, that lived there many

years, shewing the particularities and excellence thereof; with a brief of

the charge of victualling and necessaries, to transport and buy stock for

each planter or labourer there, to get his master .50 per annum, or more,

in twelve trades, and at .10, charges only a man." From a few extracts of

this pamphlet, the reader will see an account of the country in some

respects more descriptive than is commonly to be found of that date; he

will however, allow for a little more being said than was necessary in

some places.

 

"Now for the full and ample satisfaction of the reader, of his majesty's

just title, and power to grant, enjoy, and possess these countries, as

well against aliens as Indians, which this forty years hath not been by

print declared, you may read at large master Hacluit's voyages and

discoveries, master Purchas and captain Smiths: for when the Spaniard and

Portugall discover'd and possest 140 years since the East Indies, Brasill,

the south part of America, the Charibees and Antell isles, and seated

Saint John de Porto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica and Cuba, and the fort and

port of Havannah, against the gulf and current, Batuana isles, and point

of Florida; then that most powerfull and richest king of Europe, king

Henry the seventh of England, sent out an Englishman born at Bristol,

called Cabot, granted under his greate seale to him all places and

countrys by him to be discover'd and possest, who then beginning at Cape

Florida discoverd, entered on, took possession, set up crosses, and

procured atturnment and acknowledgement of the Indian kings to his then

majesty, as head, lord and emperour of the south-west America, all along

that coast both in Florida from 20 degrees to 35, where old Virginia in 35

and 30 minutes, 65 years since was seated by 5 several colonies about

Croatan cape, Haloraske, and Rawley's isle, by Sir Walter Rawley, who had

from queen Elizabeth that place, and two hundred leagues from it in all

places adjoyning; Sir Richard Greenfield, Sir Ralph Lane, and master White

his partners seating and fortifying there; the said Cabot farther taking

possession in 37, of that part called Virginia and Chisapeack Bay being

now his majesty's demesne colony of Virginia, and of the next great bay in

or near 39, called now by the Dutch Cape Henlopen, the south river, and by

us Cape James and Delaware Bay, of the baron of Delawares name, being then

governor of Virginia, who by Sir Thomas Dale, and Sir Samuel Argoll, 40

years since took possession and atturnment of the Indian kings, and 60

years since Sir Walter Rawley seated and left 30 men, and four pieces of

ordinance, and the creek near Cape James, by the Dutch called Horekill, by

us Roymount, and by the Indians Cui Achomoca; and so the next river by us

called Hudson's river, of the name of Hudson an Englishman, the discoverer

thirty five year since, who sold his discovery, plots and cards to the

Dutch; and so Cabot discovered severall rivers and countries all along the

coast North East, now called New-England, and divided in nine severall

governments, and further discovered Port-Royall, and that part called New-

Scotland, and set up crosses, where you may see in the French book called

New-France, the French found an old crosse all moss, in an eminent place

at the head of that bay and port, and discovered all that coast and

Newfoundland, and that called Terra de Laborador, or New-Britain, as far

as the frozen strait of Davis; shortly after one master Hore in the reign

of king Henry the 8th, reneued this actuall possession, atturnment of the

Indian kings, brought home divers of the chief Indian kings to England,

who gave their homage and oath of fidelity for these countries to king

Henry the eight in person, setting on his throne in state in his palace

hall at Westminster. Then Virginia being granted, settled, and all that

part now called Maryland, New-Albion and New-Scotland, being part of

Virginia, Sir Thomas Dale and Sir Samuel Argoll, captains and counsellors

of Virginia, hearing of divers aliens and intruders, and traders without

license, with a vessell and forty soldiers, landed at a place called Mount

Desert, in Nova-Scotia, near St. John's River, or Twede, possest by the

French, there killed some French, took away their guns, and dismantled the

fort, and in their return landed at Manhatas-Isle in Hudson's river, where

they found four houses built, and a pretended Dutch governor, under the

West-India company of Amsterdam share or part; who kept trading boats, and

trucking with the Indians; but the said knights told him, their commission

was to expell him and all aliens, intruders on his majesty's dominions and

territories; this being part of Virginia, and this river an English

discovery of Hudson an Englishman, the Dutchman contented them for their

charge and voiage, and by his letter sent to Virginia and recorded,

submitted himself, company and plantation to his majesty, and to the

governor and government of Virginia; but the next pretended Dutch governor

in maps of printed cards calling this part New-Netherland, failing in

paying of customes at his return to Plymouth in England, was there with

his bever, goods and person attached to his damage of .1500, whereupon at

the suit of the governor and councill of Virginia, his now majesty by his

embassadour in Holland, complaining of the said aliens intrusion, on such

his territories and dominions, the said lords, the states of Holland by

their publique instrument declared, that they did not avow, nor would

protect them, being a private party of the Amsterdam West-India company,

but left them to his majesty's will and mercy: whereupon three severall

orders from the councill table, and commissions have been granted for the

expelling and removing them thence, of which they taking notice, and

knowing their weakness and want of victuals have offered to sell the same

for .2500, and lastly taking advantage of our present, war and

distractions, now ask .7000, and have lately offered many affronts and

damages to his majesties subjects in New-England: and in generall endanger

all his majesty's adjoyning countries, most wickedly, feloniously, and

traiterously, contrary to the marine and admiral laws of all christians,

sell by wholesale guns powder shot and ammunition to the Indians,

instructing them in the use of our fights and arms; insomuch as 2000

indians by them armed, Mohawks, Raritons, and some of Long-Isle with

their own guns so sold them, fall into war with the Dutch, destroyed all

their scattering farms and boors, inforcing them all to retire to their up

fort, 40 leagues up that river and to Manhatas, for all or most retreating

to Manhatas, it is now a pretty town of trade, having more English than

Dutch: and it is very considerable that three years since Stuy their

governor put out his declaration, confessing that the neighbour English

might well be offended with their selling Indians arms and ammunition, but

being but a few and so scattered, they could not live else there, or

trade, the Indians refusing to trade or suffer the Dutch to plow without

they would sell them guns. The like folly they committed and inconvenience

to themselves, and all English, for eight years since, in their West-India

fleet, battered by the Spanish Armado, they brought home forty Swedish

poor soldiers; and hearing that capt. Young and master Evelin, had given

over their fort begun at Eriwomeck within Delaware Bay, there half starved

and totter'd they left them, who learning the Indian language, and finding

much talk and trials of a gold mine there, though in truth fifty shillings

charges produced of that light sand but nine shillings in gold, and

therefore was of capt. Young that tried it slighted; yet one Bagot under

the Swedes name and commission, there traded to crosse the Dutch of

Manahatas, and to undersell them, and left and seated there, eighteen

Swedes who proclaiming a gold mine drew more to them, and have gotten a

great trade; and now this last summer fifteen Swedes and fifteen Dutch had

a skirmish; the Swedes pulled down a Dutch trading house, and doe both

undersell them and spoiled much their and English trading with the

Indians, both striving to please and side with the Indians, both

entertaining and refusing to return all English fugitives and servants.

The Swedes hiring out three of their soldiers to the Sasquehannocks, have

taught them the use of our arms and fights, and marching with them into the

king's own colony of Virginia, have carried thence the king of Pawtomeck

prisoner, and expell'd his and eight other Indian nations in Maryland,

civiliz'd and subject to the English crown. Now if a proclamation of open

war be set out against the Dutch and Swedes for this their villainy, and

all English forbid to trade, victuall or relieve them, they must both

vanish, especially if those bad English that live, adhere and obey these

aliens in these his majesty's countries, be warned of the statute of king

James of famous memory, in these words: That all subjects giving any

obedience or acknowledgment to any forain prince, state, pope, or

potentate, within his majesties territories and dominions in England or

beyond the sea, is a traitor, and ought to suffer as a traitour. And

certainly all English, and chiefly those of New-England being ready in

twenty four hours will joyn to expel them both to regain their own trade,

to get their seats, and to be rid of the danger of armed gunning Indians.

 

"Whereas that part of America, or North Virginia, lying about 39 degrees

on Delaware Bay called the province of New Albion, is scituate in the best

and same temper, as Italy, between too cold Germany, and too hot Barbary:

so this lying just midway betweene New England 200 miles north, and

Virginia 150 miles south, where now are settled 8000 English, and 140

ships in trade, is freed from the extream cold and barrennesse of the one,

and heat and aguish marshes of the other, and is like Lumbardy, and a rich

fat soil, plain, and having 34 rivers on the main land, 17 great Isles, and

partaketh of the healthiest aire and most excellent commodities of Europe,

and replenished with the goodliest woods of oaks and all timber for ships

and masts, mulberries, sweet cypresse, cedars, pines and firres, 4 sorts

of grapes for wine, and raisins, and with the greatest variety of choice

fruits, fish and fowl, stored with all sorts of corn, yeelding 5, 7 and l0

quarters an acre: silkgras, salt, good mines & diers ware, 5 sorts of

deer, buffes, and huge elks to plow and work, all bringing 3 young at

once. The uplands covered many moneths with berries, roots, chestnuts,

walnuts, beech and oak mast to feed them, hogges and turkeys, 500 in a

flock, and having near the colony of Manteses 400000 acres of plain mead

land, and meer levell, to be flowed and fludded by that river for corn,

rice, rapes, flax and hemp. After 17 years trading and discovery there and

triall made, is begun to be planted and stored by the governor and company

of New Albion, consisting of forty four lords, baronets, knights and

merchants, who for the true informing of themselves, their friends,

adventurers and partners by residents and traders there four severall

years out of their journall books, namely, captaine Browne, a

ship-master, and master Stafford his mate, and by captaine Claybourn 14

years there trading, and Constantine his indian, there born and bred, and

by master Robert Evylin, 4 years there, yet by eight of their hands

subscribed and enrolled doe testifie this to be the true state of the

country, of the land and Delaware Bay or Charles River, which is further

witnessed by captain Smith and other Books of Virginia and by New Englands

prospect, new Canaan, captain Powels map, and other descriptions of

New England and Virginia."

 

Master Evelin's Letter.

 

"Good Madam:

 

"Sir Edmund our noble governour and lord earl Palatine, persisting still

in his noble purpose to go on with his plantation in Delaware or Charles

river, just midway between New England and Virginia, where with my unckle

Young I severall years resided, hath often informed himselfe both of me and

master Stratton, as I perceive by the hands subscribed of Edward Monmouth,

Tenis Palee, and as master Buckham, master White, and other shipmasters,

and saylors, whose hands I know, and it to be true, that there lived and

traded with me, and is sufficiently instructed of the state of the

country, and people there, and I should very gladly according to his

desire, have waited on you into Hamshire to have informed your honour in

person, had I not next weeke been passing to Virginia. But neverthelesse

to satisfie you of the truth, I thought good to write unto you my

knowledge, and first to describe you from the north side of Delaware unto

Hudsons river in Sir Edmunds patent, called New Albion, which lieth just

between New England and Maryland, and that ocean sea, I take it to be about

160 miles, I finde some broken land, isles and inlets, and many small

isles at Egbay: But going to Delaware Bay, by Cape May, which is 24 miles

at most, and is as I understand very well set out, and printed in captain

Powles map of New-England, done as is told mee by a draught I gave to M.

Daniel, the plot-maker, which Sir Edmund saith you have at home, on that

north side about five miles within a Port, or rode for any ships called

the Nook, and within lieth the king of Kechemeches, having as I suppose

about 50 men, and 12 leagues higher a little above the Bay and Bar is the

river of Manteses, which hath 20 miles on Charles river, and 30 miles

running up a fair navigable deep river all a flat levell of rich and fat

black marsh mould, which I think to be 300000 acres: In this Sir Edmund

intendeth as he saith to settle, and there the king of Manteses hath about

100 bow-men; next above about 6 leagues higher is a fair deep river, 12

miles navigable, where is freestone, and there over against is the king of

Sikonesses, and next is Asomoches river and king with an hundred men, and

next is Eriwoneck a king of forty men where we sate down, and five miles

above is the king of Ramcock with a hundred men, and four miles higher the

King of Axion with two hundred men, and next to him tenne leagues over

land an inland king of Calcefar, with an hundred and fifty men, and then

there is in the middle of Charles river two fair woody isles, very

pleasant and fit for parks, the one of a thousand acres, the other of

fourteen hundred, or thereabout. And six leagues higher near a creek called

Mosilian, the king having two hundred men. And then we come to the Fals,

made by a rock of lime-stone, as I suppose it is, about sixty and five

leagues from the sea, near to which is an isle fit for a city, all

materials there to build; and above the river fair and navigable, as the

Indians inform me, for I went but ten miles higher. I doe account all the

Indians to be eight hundred, and are in several factions and war against

the Sasquehannocks, and are all extream fearfull of a gun, naked and

unarmed against our shot, swords, and pikes. I had some bickering with

some of them, and they are of so little esteem, as I durst with fifteen

men sit down, or trade in despight of them, and since my return eighteene

Sweeds are settled there, and so sometime sixe Dutch doe in a boat trade

without fear of them. I saw there an infinite quantity of bustards, swans,

geese, and fowl, covering the shoares as within the like multitude of

pigeons, and store of turkies, of which I tried one to weigh forty and

sixe pounds. There is much variety and plenty of delicate fresh and sea-

fish, and shell-fish, and whales, or grampus: elks, deere that bring three

young at a time & the woods bestrewed many moneths with chestnuts,

wall-nuts, and mast of severall sorts to feed them, and hogs, that would

increase exceedingly. There the barren grounds have four kindes of grapes

and many mulberries with ash, elms, and the tallest and greatest pines and

pitch trees, that I have seen. There are cedars, cypresse and sassafras,

with wilde fruits, pears, wilde cherries, pine-apples, and the dainty

parsemenas. And there is no question but almonds, and other fruits of

Spain will prosper, as in Virginia. And (which is a good comfort) in four

and twenty houres you may send or goe by sea to New England or Virginia,

with a fair winde, you may have cattle, and from the Indians two thousand

barrels of corn, at twelve pence a bushel in truck, so as victuals are

there cheaper and better, than to be transported: Neither do I conceive

any great need of a fort or charge, where there is no enemy.

 

If my lord Palatine, will bring with him three hundred men or more, there

is no doubt but that he may doe very well and grow rich, for it is a most

pure healthfull air, and such pure wholesome springs, rivers and waters,

as are delightfull, of a desert, as can be seen, with so many varieties of

severall flowers, trees and forrests for swine. So many fair risings and

prospects, all green and verdant: and Maryland a good friend and

neighbour, in four and twenty houres ready to comfort and supply. And

truly I beleeve, my lord of Baltimore will be glad of my lord Palatines

plantation and assistance against any enemy or bad neighbour. And if my

lord Palatine employ some men to sow flaxe, hemp and rapes in those rich

marishes, or build ships and make pipe staves, and load some ships with

these wares, or fish from the northward, he may have any money, ware, or

company brought him by his own ships, or the ships of Virginia or New

England all the year. And because your honour is of the noble house of the

Pawlets, and as I am informed, desire to lead many of your friends and

kindred thither, whom as I honour, I desire to serve, I shall intreat you

to beleeve mee as a gentleman and christian, I write you nothing but the

truth, and hope there to take opportunity in due season to visit you, and

doe all the good offices in Virginia, my place or friends can serve you

in. And thus tendering my service, I rest, Madam

 

Your honours most humble faithfull servant.

 

ROBERT EVELIN."

 

"Now since master Elmes letter and seven years discoveries of the lord

governor in person, and by honest traders with the Indians we finde beside

the Indian kings by him known and printed, in this province there is in

all twenty three Indian kings or chief commanders, and besides the number

of 800 by him named, there is at least 1200 under the two Raritan kings on

the north side next to Hudsons river, and those come down to the ocean

about little Egbay and Sandy Barnegate, and about the South cape two small

kings of forty men a piece, called Tirans and Tiascons, and a third

reduced to fourteen men at Roymont, the Sasquehannocks are not now of the

naturals left above 110, tho' with their forced auxiliaries the Ihon a

Does, and Wicomeses they can make 250: these together are counted valiant

and terrible to other cowardly dul Indians, which they beat with the sight

of guns only. - - - - -" The eight seat is Kildorpy, neer the fals of

Charles river, neer 200 miles up from the ocean, it hath clear fields to

plant and sow and neer it is sweet large meads of clover or honysuckle, no

where else in America to be seen, unlesse transported from Europe, a ship

of 140 tuns may come up to these fals which is the best seat for health,

and a trading house to be built on the rocks, and ten leagues higher are

lead mines in stony hills.

 

"The ninth is called mount Ployden, the seat of the Rariton king on the

north side of this province twenty miles from Sandhay sea, and ninety from

the ocean, next to Amara hill, the retired paradise of the children of the

Ethiopian emperour, a wonder, for it is a square rock, two miles compasse,

150 foot high, a wall-like precipice, a strait entrance, easily made

invincible, where he keeps two hundred for his guard, and under it is a

flat valley, all plain to plant and sow.

 

"The Sasquehannocks new town is also a rare, healthy and rich place, with

it a crystal broad river, but some fals below hinder navigation, and the

hooke hill on the ocean with its clear fields neer Hudsons river on one

side, and a ten leagues flowing river on the south side is much commended

for health and fish, were it not so northerly.

 

"The bounds is a thousand miles compass, of this most temperate rich

province, for our south bound is Maryland north bounds, and beginneth at

Aquats or the southermost or first cape of Delaware Bay, in thirty eight

and forty minutes, and so runneth by, or through, or incitiding Kent Isle,

through Chisapeask Bay to Piscataway; including the fals of Pawtomecke

river to the head or northernmost branch of that river, being three

hundred miles due west, and thence northward to the head of Hudson's

river fifty leagues, and so down Hudson's river to the ocean sixty

leagues; and thence to the ocean and isles acrosse Delaware Bay, to the

South cape fifty leagues; in all seven hundred and eighty miles. Then all

Hudson's river, isles, Long Isle, or Pamunke, and all isles within ten

leagues of the said province being; and note, Long isle alone is twenty

broad, and one hundred and eighty miles long, so that alone is four

hundred miles compasse. Now I have examined all former patents, some being

surrender'd, and some adjudg'd void, as gotten on false suggestions, as

that at the councell table was at master Gonges suit, of Mantachusets, and

as capt. Clayborn, heretofore secretary and now treasurer of Virginia, in

dispute with master Leonard Calvert alledgeth; that of Maryland is

likewise void in part as gotten on false suggestions; for as capt.

Clayborn, sheweth the Maryland patent in the first part declareth the

king's intention to be to grant a land thereafter described, altogether

dishabited and unplanted, though possest with Indians. Now Kent isle was

with many housholds of English by c. Clayborn before seated, and because

his majesty by his privy signet shortly after declared it was not his

intention to grant any lands before seated and habited: and for that it

lieth by the Maryland printed card, clean northward within Albion, and not

in Maryland, and not onely late sea-men, but old depositions in Claybornes

hand, shew it to be out of Maryland, and for that Albions privy signet is

elder, and before Maryland patent, Clayborn by force entered, and thrust

out master Calvert out of Kent; next Maryland patent coming to the ocean,

saith "along by the ocean upon Delaware Bay; that is the first cape of the

two most plain in view, and exprest in all late English and Dutch cards;

and note unto Delaware Bay is not into the Bay, nor farther then that cape

heading the Bay, being in thirty eight and forty, or at most by seven

observations I have seen, thirty eight and fifty minutes: So as

undoubtedly, that is the true intended and ground bound, and line, and no

farther, for the words following are not words of grant, but words of

declaration; that is, Which Delaware Bay lieth in forty degrees where New-

England ends; these are both untrue, and so being declarative is a false

suggestion; is void, for no part of Delaware Bay lieth in forty. Now if

there were but the least doubt of this true bounds, I should wish by

consent or commission, a perambulation and boundary, not but there is land

enough for all, and I hold Kent isle having lately but twenty men in it,

and the mill and fort pulled down, and in war with all the indians neer

it, not worth the keeping."

 

6 It is said for some little time at first, to have bore the name New

Canary.