Lord Lovelace arrives governor; Convenes a new assembly; they apply to him

for a hearing on the subject of the lieutenant governor and council's

application to the queen; His death; is succeeded by the lieutenant

governor Ingoldsby; The first paper currency; Arrival of governor Hunter;

A short account of the first expedition to Canada; A new assembly chosen;

their first session in Hunter's time.


John Lord Lovelace, baron of Hurley, being appointed to succeed lord

Cornbury; he summoned the council to meet him at Bergen, December 20, 1708,

published his commission, and met a new asssembly 1 in the spring, at

Perth-Amboy, and informed them by speech:


That he was very sensible of great difficulties attending the honorable

employment in which her majesty had placed him, and he hoped they would

never fail to assist him to serve the queen and her people; that her

majesty had shewn, in the whole course of her reign (a reign glorious

beyond example) how much she aim'd at the good and prosperity of her

people; having with indefatigable pains united her two kingdoms of England

and Scotland, and continued the same application to unite the minds of all

her subjects; that this was her great care, and ought to be the care of

those whom she deputed to govern the distant provinces not happy enough by

situation to be under her more immediate government; that as he could not

set before him a better pattern, he should endeavour to recommend himself

to them, by following as far as he was able, her example; that he should

not give them any just cause of uneasiness, under his administration, and

hoped they would bear with one another; that past differences and

animosities ought to be buried in oblivion, and the peace and wellfare of

the country alone, pursued by each individual; that her majesty would not

be burthensome to her people; but there being an absolute necessity that

the government be supported, he was directed to recommend that matter to

their consideration; that they knew best what the province could

conveniently raise for its support, and the easiest methods of raising it;

that the making a law for putting the militia on a better footing than it

at present stood, with as much ease to the people as possible, required

their consideration; that he should always be ready to give his assent to

whatever laws they found necessary, for promoting religion and virtue; for

the encouragement of trade and industry, and discouragement of vice and

prophaneness, and for any other matter or thing relating to the good of the



The assembly, in their turn, told the governor by address; that they

esteemed it their great happiness, that her majesty had placed a person of

so much temper and moderation over them, and made no question he would

surmount every difficulty with honour and safety.


That her majesty's reign would make a bright leaf in history; that it was

the advantage of the present, and would be the admiration of future ages,

not more for her success abroad, than prudence at home; that tho' their

distance had and might sometimes be disadvantageous to them, yet they

experienced the effect of her princely care, in putting an end to the

worst administration New-Jersey ever knew, by sending him, whose

government would always be easy to her majesty's subjects here, and

satisfactory to himself, whilst he followed so great and good an example.


That they had no animosities with one another, but firmly agreed to do

themselves and their country justice; that they were persuaded none that

deserved publick censure, would have a share in his esteem; and doubted

not of meeting with his hearty concurrence in every measure, that conduced

to peace and good order.


That they should support the government to the utmost of their abilities,

and most willingly so at a time when they were freed from bondage and

arbitrary encroachments, and were convinced that vice and immorality would

no more receive the publick countenance and approbation.


They assured him, all his reasonable desires would be commands to them;

and promised it should be their study to make his administration as easy

and happy as they could.


The session lasted a month, in which business went on with unusual

smoothness; the assembly obtained from the governor, a copy of the address

(before inserted) from the lieutenant governor and council, to the queen,

in 1707; they thanked him for the favour, and requested he would desire

the lieutenant governor, and all that signed the address, to attend him at

such time as he thought fit to appoint, to prove their allegations; and

that the house might have leave to be present, and have opportunity of

making their defence, in order to clear themselves from such imputations.


The governor shewed a ready inclination to grant this request, and

appointed a day for a hearing; but by the artifices of those concerned, it

was evaded from time to time: Whether they at last gain'd their point,

does not appear. Most of the inhabitants of New-Jersey, now pleased

themselves with the prospect of happy times: With a change of governors

followed a change of measures and favourites; impartiality and candour

succeeded trick and design; the tools of the former administration having

nothing but the protection of that to support them, sunk into neglect.


It was Cornbury's weakness to encourage men that would flatter his vanity,

and trim to his humours and measures; these were sure of his favours; but

the case was otherwise now: Such of the former favourites as yet continued

in the council, were not without their share of disesteem; even the

confidence which had been usually put in that board, on passing the

support bill, was discontinued: The assembly declaring to Lovelace, that

tho' they had an entire confidence in his justice and prudence, respecting

the disposition of the money for support of government, they had not that

confidence in the gentlemen that were now of her majesty's council; and

that this was the reason they had altered the former method; and therefore

requested he would favourably represent it to the queen in their behalf.2


The difference of these administrations will appear on a short comparison.

The first on the subject of a support, makes use of the following



"That I may not be wanting in my duty in the station the queen has been

pleased to honour me with; I shall put you in mind of those things, which

I think ought to be immediately provided for; the first of which is

providing a revenue for the support of government; the revenue which the

queen expects is fifteen hundred pounds a year, for one and twenty years."


Lord Lovelace, ten months afterwards, upon the same occasion, speaks as

follows: "Her majesty would not be burthensome to her people, but there

being an absolute necessity that the government be supported; I am desired

to recommend that matter to your consideration; you know best what the

province can conveniently raise for its support, and the easiest method of

raising it." Hence may be seen, that the inhabitants had some reason to

promise themselves more happy times than heretofore; but to their great

disappointment, lord Lovelace died within a few days afterwards, and the

administration devolved on the lieutenant governor Ingoldsby, who laid

before the assembly the design of the crown, respecting an expedition

against Canada, under the colonels Nicholson and Vetch; they immediately

voted .3000, for the service, by an emission of paper bills of credit,

but did not now pass the bill.


The lieutenant governor adjourned them for a few weeks, and then told them,

he had given them another opportunity of doing their duty to her majesty,

and what their country required at their hands.


That he found in their votes at last sitting, a resolve for raising

.3000, for her majesty's service; that this was now become a debt, and

they had only to consider of ways and means of raising it; and that a

proper application was made for the paying of their quota of men appointed

for reducing Canada.


The assembly prepared three bills, one for raising .3,000, 3 another for

enforcing its currency, and a third for the encouragement of volunteers,

going on the Canada expedition; these bills having received the governor's

assent, the house was adjourn'd to the first of November, to meet at

Burlington; in November they met accordingly, but deferred business 'till

December, when they sat ten weeks, passed 18 bills, were then adjourn'd,

and afterwards prorogued from time to time, 'till dissolved by governor

Hunter, in 1710.4


It was in the latter end of the year 1708, that Col. Vetch first applied

to the court of Great-Britain, for sea and land forces, to reduce Canada;

he, with Col. Nicholson, obtain'd a small force from England, and

instructions to the several governors on the continent to give them what

assistance they could:5 They had a promise of a fleet of ships of war to

follow them in due time; they came over in the beginning of summer 1709, 6

and brought with them the following instructions, directed to Col. Vetch.




"Instructions for our trusty and well-beloved Col. Vetch, to be observed

in his negotiations with the governors of several of our colonies in

America: Given at our court at St. James's, the 28th day of February,

1708-9, and in the seventh year of our reign.


"Whereas you have laid before us the proposal of an enterprize on Canada

and Newfoundland, which may turn very much to the security and advantage

of our subjects in those parts of America, as well as to the prosperity of

our kingdoms in general; we having taken the same into consideration, do

entirely approve of the said proposal; and in order to execute it

effectually, have thought fit to give you these our following instructions.


"You shall immediately repair on board the ship appointed by our high

admiral for the transporting of you, with officers as shall be sent under

your command, to several of our colonies in North-America; upon your

arrival at New-York, you are to deliver to our governor of that place a

letter from us, and communicate to him these our instructions, acquainting

him, that we shall expect from him a punctual and ready compliance in all

such as relate to him; you shall represent to him, that out of a great

desire to answer the frequent applications which have been made to us, by

our good subjects the inhabitants of those parts, to deliver them from the

neighbourhood of the French of Canada, which of late years hath been so

troublesom to them; we have fitted out an expedition, the particulars of

which you shall lay before him, and withal let him know, that we strictly

require and enjoin him, to give such an assistance to the said expedition,

as is hereafter specified.


"You shall signify to him our pleasure, that the governor of New-York do

furnish a quota of eight hundred men, including the four standing

companies; and that the city regiments of York and Albany do duty in the

forts, during the absence of the said standing companies. You shall at the

same time acquaint him, that New-Jersey is to furnish two hundred men;

Connecticut three hundred and fifty, and Pennsylvania one hundred and

fifty; so that the whole force will consist of fifteen hundred effectives;

which are to be disposed into four battalions; each battalion to have one

of the four regular companies mixed and incorporated in it, and to be

commanded by the captains as colonel whose company is so incorporated in

it, and under him by the respective officers of the country troops; the

officers that go with you, and are designed for New York, to be

distributed among the companies, as the governor in concert with the

commander in chief, shall think best for the service.


"You shall likewise acquaint our aforesaid governor, in our name, that we

do command and expect from him, that the quotas of his government, be

ready at Albany, with all things necessary for the expedition, by the

middle of May next ensuing, at the furthest; and that he furnish all the

troops with what arms and ammunition they want, out of the magazine at New

York; and that he do forthwith get together and keep in readiness, three

months provision for his quota of those, to be transported an lodged in

some convenient place at the wood creek or elsewhere; for the security of

which, he shall, in conjunction with the governments of Connecticut and

Pennsylvania, cause to be built a large wooden store house; as also six or

more large boats, that will carry sixty men each, for the transportation

of their heavier stores by water; and also contract with the five nations,

to make with all speed, as many canoes as will be wanted for the said



"You shall moreover enjoin the aforesaid governors in our name, to command

and engage the aforesaid five nations, as also the river Indians, to join

with all their fighting men in the said expedition, and promise them a

good present if they do; you shall likewise acquaint them, that it is our

pleasure that he give all fitting encouragement to any gentlemen, or

others, that shall offer themselves to go as volunteers in this our



"You shall deliver a letter from us to the governor of Connecticut, and

another to the governor of Pennsylvania, for the time being, and signify

to them our royal will and pleasure, that they have their quotas of men

and provisions ready by the middle of May at furthest; acquainting them

withal, that the governor of New-York is ordered to assist them with what

arms and ammunition they shall want.


"After having finished your negotiations for the foregoing expedition,

with all possible secrecy and dispatch, you shall deliver a letter from us

to our governor of New-England, and another to the governor of Rhode-

Island, for the time being, strictly enjoining and commanding them in our

name, to raise at least twelve hundred of their best men, according to

their usual proportions; and to give all fitting encouragement to any such

as shall offer themselves to go volunteers in the expedition, whether

gentlemen or others; as also to have in readiness a sufficient number of

transports, with three months provisions and able pilots, whereof capt.

Southwech 7 is to be one, and to go in his own galley; and that all may be

ready to embark by the middle of May, upon the arrival of the fleet from

England; and for their greater encouragement, you shall acquaint them,

that we have ordered arms and ammunition to be sent with you, for the

number of troops they are to furnish; which arms and ammunition you shall

accordingly deliver to the several companies, in presence of the governor

or commissary of the country, taking a receipt for the same, which you

shall transmit to our board of ordnance in this kingdom.


"You shall with the concurrence and advice of our governor of New-England,

contract with ship carpenters, for the building of ten or more large flat

bottomd boats, that will carry sixty men each, for the landing of troops;

and also contract with proper persons for the furnishing of eight months

provision to the troops that shall be left at Quebec or Montreal, if it

shall please God to make our forces masters of those places, and to give

us the success that we hope for from this our expedition.


"And to the end, that nothing may be wanting on our parts, towards

engaging the several governments to act with the utmost spirit and vigour

in this expedition, you shall assure them in our name, that such of the

governments as contribute towards the reduction of Canada, shall have a

preference both with regard to the soil and trade of the country, when

reduced, to any other of our subjects; and when they shall have concerted

among themselves any reasonable proposals, for securing to their

respective colonies the benefit of the said soil and trade, we shall

not be wanting to give our royal sanction to the same.


"You shall communicate these our instructions to colonel Francis

Nicholson, who hath offered himself to go as a voluntier in this

expedition; and further, out of regard to his known abilities and zeal for

our service, we do require, that you should admit him into your private

consultations with our several governors, on the methods for putting this

your proposal into execution; and if by reason of the distance of time and

place, any other preparations may be necessary for the carrying on this

expedition, which we could not here foresee, and which is not contained

in these your instructions, you shall, with the concurrence of the

governor, who is to assist in any such service, and of colonel Nicholson,

make any such peparations, tho' it is not in your instructions; provided,

that it appear to you absolutely necessary for the carrying on of the

expedition aforesaid, and that the governor and colonel Nicholson do

entirely concur in judging it to be so.

"A. R.



Being arrived, they did their best at raising forces on the continent; but

a difference arising among the ministry at home, the ships of war expected

from thence, came not: They waited without doing any thing 'till the

winter, and then Nicholson went back to England, to solicit further

assistance, and forward what had been proposed; to do this with more

probability of success, four Indian sachems of the Five now Six Nations,

were prevailed upon to take a voyage to England, to assist what they could

in persuading this Expedition:8 With these went over Col. Schuyler: They

sail'd early in the year; had several conference with the lords of trade;

and with Nicholson and the forces he brought, returned in the summer, and

arrived at Boston.


According to the instructions to the governments on the continent, for

getting their assistance in readiness, a considerable armament was raised,

and set out from Boston September 18. The fleet consisted of the Dragon,

Falmouth, Leostaff, Feversham, men of war, the Star bomb, and the

Massachusetts province galley, with transports, in all thirty-six sail;

the forces on board were, one regiment of marines from England, two

regiments of Massachusetts Bay, one regiment of Connecticut, and one of

New-Hampshire and Rhode-Island, commissioned by the queen, armed and

victualed in part by her gift, and part by the several colonies, towards

which New-Jersey was .3,000; they arrived at Port-Royal, now called

Annapolis-Royal, in six days sail from Boston; after some small canonading

and bombarding, the French governor Subercasse, capitulated; October 5,

the fort was given up, and Col. Vetch, according to the instructions for

that purpose, became governor; the terms of the capitulation were, that

all the French, being four hundred and eighty one persons, within three

miles of the fort, should be under the protection of Great-Britain, upon

taking the oaths of allegiance; the other French settlers were left at

discretion; that in case the French made incursions upon the frontiers of

New-England, the British should make reprisals upon the French in Nova-

Scotia, by making some of the chief of their inhabitants slaves to their

Indians; notwithstanding this, the French of L'Accadia, soon after

committed hostilities; tho' the Port-Royal and Cape-Sable Indians desired

terms of amity and alliance might be settled with them; which was

accordingly done. The men of war and transports sailed again for Boston,

October the 14th, leaving a garrison in Port-Royal of two hundred marines

and two hundred and fifty of the new raised voluntiers from the continent;

which were the next year relieved by four hundred of the troops destin'd

for Canada. Nova-Scotia had continued with the French from the year 1662

(except the momentary reduction and possession of it by sir William Phips,

in 1690. 9 ) until now; this acquisition afterwards confirmed to Great-

Britain by the treaty of Utretcht, hath so remained ever since.


The design respecting Canada, was for this year laid aside; the earl of

Dartmouth, secretary of state, wrote to governor Hunter upon the subject,

and to encourage an attempt upon Port-Royal, as follows:


"Whitehall, August 1710




"The queen commands me to acquaint you, that as she has formerly taken

into consideration the sending over into New-England, such a number of

land forces, that joined with those under your command, and such as the

neighbouring colonies could have furnished, might have been of strength

sufficient to beat the French out of Canada and North-America; so her

majesty had caused this year all necessary preparations to be made, for

this expedition; which her majesty has been forced to lay aside for the

present, by reason of the contrary winds which happened, when the season

was proper for the fleet to sail, and in regard of other important

services which interven'd; the queen commanded me to add, that she hopes

to receive a good account of the expedition against Port-Royal; having

sent away last spring Col. Francis Nicholson, with such commissions,

instructions and dispatches, as were necessary for that purpose; and that

she is very well pleased with the accounts she has received of the zeal

with which her subjects under your government embraced this undertaking,

and the forwardness they expressed to promote it; her majesty therefore

for this season, out of her tender care for their good and prosperity,

intends to pursue this design as soon as the state of her affairs will

permit it, being very sensible of the great advantages which may be thence

expected. And as her majesty will not be wanting of her endeavours to

promote whatever may conduce to the welfare and security of the colony

under your government; so her majesty doubts not, but that proper measures

will be effectually taken there for the common safety and interest, which

her majesty earnestly recommends to your care.


"This is what I have in command from the queen, who would have you to

communicate this letter in the usual manner, to her loving subjects.


"I am, sir, your most humble servant,




Brigadier Hunter arrived governor in the summer this year[1710],10 called

a new assembly 11 to meet the 6th of December; they chose John Kay, of

Gloucester, speaker, received the governor's speech; we give it in his own





"I am little used to make speeches, so you shall not be troubled with a

long one; if honesty is the best policy, plainness must be the best

oratory; so to deal plainly with you, so long as these unchristian

divisions which her majesty has thought to deserve her repeated notice,

reign amongst you, I shall have small hopes of a happy issue to your



"This is an evil which every body complains of; but few take the right

method to remedy it; let every man begin at home, and weed the rancour out

of his own mind, and the work is done at once.


"Leave disputes of property to the laws, and injuries to the avenger of

them; and like good subjects, and good christians, join hearts and hands

for the common good.


"I hope you all agree in the necessity of supporting the government, and

will not differ about the means; that it may the better deserve your

support, I shall endeavour to square it by the best rule that I know, that

is the power from whence 'tis derived; which all the world must own to be

justice and goodness itself.


"There are several matters recommended to you by her majesty, to be passed

into laws, which I shall lay before you at proper seasons; and shall

heartily concur with you in enacting whatsoever may be requisite for the

publick peace and welfare, the curbing of vice, and encouraging of virtue.


"If what I have said, or what I can do, may have the blessed effect I wish

for, I shall bless the hour that brought me hither; If I am disappointed,

I shall pray for that which is to call be [me?] back, for all power except

that of doing good is but a burthen." The assembly's address:


"May it please your excellency,


"We sincerely congratulate your accession to the government of this

province, and hope the long wished for time is come, in which the

unchristian causes of our divisions will be taken away, which we persuade

ourselves you will be as willing, as we conceive you are able to do, by

divesting a few designing men of that authority, which they use to the

worst purposes.


"We have experienced repeated instances of her majesty's care over us;

among which one was, the sending the good lord Lovelace, who put an end to

an administration the then assembly of this province, with great justice,

stile the worst New-Jersey had ever known; that good man lived long enough

to know how much the province had been oppressed, tho' not to remove the

causes: Another instance of her majesty's royal favour, we esteem, is the

sending your excellency to govern us, and we persuade ourselves your

conduct will evince it so to be.


"We hope great things from you, and none but what are just; let not ill

men be put or continued in power to oppress; let her majesty's subjects

enjoy their liberties and properties, according to the laws, and let

not those laws be warpt to gratify the avarice or resentment of any, and

then we may safely leave disputes of property to them; this we are

humbly of opinion, is the greatest honesty, and we make no question you

esteem it to be the best policy.


"We always thought it equally reasonable to support a government, and to

deny that support to tyranny and oppression; we should be glad our

abilities would come up to what we esteem your merits; what we are able to

do, shall be sincerely done, and in as agreeable a manner as we are

capable; all your desires, which we doubt not will be reasonable, shall be

commands to us, who will be always ready to join in any thing that may

conduce to the publick benefit, and your own; and hope you may never want

will and power to punish wickedness and vice, and encourage true religion

and virtue; which if you do, we shall esteem you our deliverer, and

posterity shall mention your name with honour.


"Divers members of this assembly, being of tbe people called quakers,

concur to the substance of this address, with their usual exception to the



This session continued better than two months; the governor and assembly

agreed cordially, but a majority of the council differed from both,

notwithanding an accession of divers new members.


Ever since the surrender, the province had been involved in great

confusion, on account of the people called quakers being denied to serve

on juries, under the pretence that an oath was absolutely necessary; the

inhabitants in many parts, were chiefly such, and juries could not be got

without them; the assembly seeing the confusion that had and would

unavoidably follow such refusal, passed a bill for ascertaining the

qualification of jurors, and enabling the people called quakers to serve

on them, &c. and another respecting the affirmation: The reports of the

committee, will, among other things, shew the conduct of the council on

this occasion


"The house, according to order, resolved itself into a committee of the

whole house, to consider farther of the papers laid before this house by

his excellency; and after some time spent therein, Mr. speaker resumed the

chair, and doctor Johnston reported from the said committee, that the 43d

article of her majesty's instructions being read, requiring an act to be

passed, for settling the properties and possessions of all persons

concerned in this province; they do think it to be a matter of the

greatest concern, for the quieting the minds of the people and making the

province happy, and do think it will be to no purpose at present to spend

time about such a bill, seeing the council has put them out of all hopes

of having any such act to pass.


"Doctor Johnson also reported from the said committee, that the 60th

article of her majesty's instructions being read, requiring an act to be

passed, for those people that make a religious scruple of swearing, to the

like effect of that passed in the 7th and 8th of king William the third in

England, so far as may be consistent with good order and government;

that the house have already sent up such an act to the council for their

concurrence, as near to the like effect as the circumstance of this colony

will admit; which the council rejected without committing the same.


"And further, that the 94th article of her majesty's instructions being

read, requiring an act to be passed ascertaining qualifications of jurors;

that the same was included in the bill, entitled, 'An act for ascertaining

the qualifications of jurors, and enabling the people called quakers to

serve on them, &c.' which the council rejected without committing the

same, as is reported before to the 60th article.


"And that he was desired to move, that they might have leave to sit again."


By this report, it seems the assembly had no expectation of obtaining these

matters this session; they took into consideration the militia act, passed

in Cornbury's time, by which the quakers in many parts of the province had

been greatly oppressed; they appointed doctor Johnston, Isaac Sharp, Jacob

Spicer, Williarn Sandford, John Reid, and Robert Wheeler,12 a committee,

to prepare and bring in a bill, for explaining an act of this province,

past in the third year of her majesty queen Anne, entitled, 'an act for

settling the militia of this province, and for relieving persons aggrieved



A Bill was brought in, and divers officers who had been more rigorous in

distressing, than the law warranted, were sent for, to answer for their

conduct at the bar of the house, and ordered to render account of the

goods distrained; this gone through, the bill passed, in which provision

was made for the relief of the sufferers; but the council rejected it, as

they had done the other bills. Next came on the consideration of the

charges made against a former assembly, to the queen, whose vindication

they undertook.


"A copy of a paper entitled, The humble address of the lieutenant governor

and council of Nova-Caesaria or New-Jersey, in America, to the Queen's

most excellent majesty;13 signed by Richard Ingoldsby, William Pinhorne,

Roger Mompesson, Thomas Revell, Daniel Leeds, Daniel Coxe, Richard

Townley, William Sandford, and Robert Quarry, in the year 1707; was read

in the house; and being taken into consideration, the question was put,

whether the said humble address (as it is called) of the lieutenant

governor and council to the queen's most excellent majesty, be a false and

scandalous representation of the representative body of this province, or

not? it was carried in the affirmative. A motion being made, and the

question being put, whether this house do address her majesty for the

justification of the proceedings of the representative body of this

province, in the present and former assemblies, or not? it was carried in

the affirmative.


"A motion being made, and the question being put, whether any person that

has signed the above mentioned false and scandalous representation of the

representative body of this province, be a fit member to sit in this

house, unless he acknowledge his fault to this house, or not? it was

carried in the negative.


"Major Sandford, one of the members of this house, having acknowledged

that he signed the above mentioned address to her majesty, was asked if he

would acknowledge his fault to this house for the same? his answer was, he

signed it as he was one of her majesty's council, and was only accountable

to her majesty for the same; wherefore the question was put, whether major

Sandford be expelled this house for the same, or not? it was carried in

the affirmative.


"Ordered, that major Sandford be expelled this house, for signing a false

and scandalous paper, called the huinble address of the lieutenant

governor and council, to her majesty, in the year 1707; and he is expelled

this house accordingly."


1 For the Eastern division: Elisha Lawrence, Capt. Price, G. Mott, ---

Shepard, J. Johnston, T. Gordon, J. Harrison, Tho. Fitzrandolph, Geo.

Duncan, John Trent, Law. Vanbuskirk. Western division: John Kay, speaker,

P. Fretwell, J. Kaighn, H. Sharp, T. Lambert, John Lewis, Samuel

Smith, --- Dennis, Jacob Spicer, Robert Wheeler, William Bustill.


2 The law regulating the qualification of representatives to serve in

general assembly, now passed, is yet in force; the substance of this and

the additional one passed at a different session, but in the same year, is,

that every voter shall have 100 acres of land in his own right, or be

worth .50 current money; that the persons elected, shall have 1000 acres

in his own right, or be worth .500 current money, in personal estate;

that the representatives and electors shall be freeholders, and have

estates sufficient to qualify him or them in the division where electing

or chosen; that the house of representatives shall be judges of the

qualification of their members; that the same forfeitures shall attend

undue returns as in England; and that no person shall be chosen a

representative, who with his family, does not reside in the province. See

also the laws of 1725 and 1730. Vol, 1, p. 142, 195.


3 Here began the paper currency in New-Jersey: The care of the legislature

respecting it, in this and all the succeeding emissions being to render

the funds for sinking, according to the acts that created it, secure, and

to prevent the currency failing in value; by changing the bills as they

became ragged and torn, and allowing no re-emissions on any other account

whatsoever; it has thence from the beginning, preserved its credit, and

proved of great service to the proprietors, in the sale of their lands,

and to the settlers, in enabling them to purchase and contract, and pay

English debts, and go on with their improvements; the securities when

issued on loan, were double the value in lands, or treble in houses, and

five per cent. interest; but now (1765) there is none current on this

footing: The funds for sinking by tax the money created for the expedition

and other purposes, are mortgages (secured in the acts that make the

respective emissions) on the estates real and personal, in the province;

hence they are secured as firmly as the province itself; they are a legal

tender to all the inhabitants in the province, and elsewhere, but not to

others, except while in the province: The remittances of this province to

England, being chiefly from New-York and Philadelphia, and the bills no

legal tender there, they can never operate to the prejudice of English

debts; let exchange be as it may, because none there are obliged to take

them; this is a particularity only belonging to the state of trade, of New-

Jersey, and renders a paper currency there, free from the objections

usually made against it in England.


4 For a few months before governor Hunter's arrival; William Pinhorne, as

president of the council, exercised the office of commander in chief.


5 The instructions to the governor of New-York and New-Jersey, were as





"Right trusty and well beloved, we greet you well: Whereas we are fitting

out an expedition with great expence, for the security of our subjects in

your government, from the neighbourhood of the French at Canada, which has

been very troublesome to them of late years: According to certain

proposals laid before us by our trusty and well beloved colonel Vetch, and

pursuant to the many applications that have been made to us by our

subjects, who have suffered very much from the French in that

neighbourhood; we do hereby strictly require and command you, to be

assisting to this expedition, after the manner that the said colonel Vetch

shall in our name propose to you, and that you look upon those parts of

his instructions which relate to you, and our governments under your care,

and which we have ordered him to communicate to you, in the same manner as

if they were our positive commands directed to yourself, and that you pay

the same obedience to them: And whereas there may be some particulars in

our above mentioned instructions, as that which concerns the place of

rendezvous, in which you who live in the country, may be the most proper

judge; we do therefore leave this and the other the like circumstances, to

be altered at discretion; provided, that colonel Vetch and colonel

Nicholson, do agree with you in any such alteration; and provided you do

punctually observe the number of men which you are to furnish, and the

time when they are to appear and be on a readiness to enter upon their

expedition: And so we bid you farewell. Given at our court at St. James's,

the 28th of February, and in the seventh year of our reign.


"By her majesty's command,




"To our trusty and well beloved John Lord Lovelace, our captain general

and governor in chief of our province of New-York and New-Jersey, in

America, or in his absence to the commander in chief of the said provinces

for the time being."


6 The colonels Nicholson and Vetch both appearing at a council held at

Amboy, the 30th May, 1709, it was concluded, that George Riscarricks

should be forthwith sent to Weequehala, the Indian sachem, to acquaint

him, that the lieut. governor Ingoldsby expected his attendance on that

board forthwith; and that captain Aarent Schuyler should forthwith send

for Mahcotuinst, Cohcowickick, Ohtossolonoppe, Meskakow and Teetee,

sachems of the Minisinks and Shawhona Indians; who appearing soon

afterwards, joined in the undertaking; and Ingoldsby, governor of New-

Jersey, G. Saltonstall, governor of Connecticut, and C. Gookin, governor

of Pennsylvania, jointly commissionated colonel Peter Schuyler, the 23d of

May, 1709, to be over these and the other Indians on this expedition; and

soon afterwards the said three governors joined in a petition to

Nicholson, that he would take upon him the chief command of the

expedition; after which he bore the name of general Nicholson.


7 He was master of the province galley, belonging to the Massachusetts



8 Indians in England were then a strange sight; these sachems were also

considered in proportion to the faithfulness and importance of the nations

they belonged to, and accordingly much taken notice of: The court was in

mourning for the death of George prince of Denmark, the sachems at the

queen's expence had under-cloaths of black, covered with a scarlet mantle,

edged with gold; they were carried to court in coaches, and introduced in

form to the queen; one of them made a speech, setting forth, that they

doubted not the queen was acquainted with their long and tedious war

against the French, in conjunction with her children, (subjects) that they

had been a strong wall for the security of these, even to the loss of

their best men, as Quider and Anadagarjaux (Schuyler and Nicholson) could

testify; that they were glad an Expedition to Canada had been undertaken,

and had assisted in the preparations on the lake, whilst Anidiasia (Vetch)

at the same time was raising an army at Boston; that as some important

affair had prevented the expected fleet, and rendered the design for that

season abortive; they were left much exposed; and if the Queen was not

still mindful of them, they with their families must forsake the country,

and seek other habitations, or stand neuter; either of which would be much

against their inclinations; they concluded with presenting some belts of

wampum. After this they were magnificently entertained by several of the

nobility, and were once present at the review of the guards in Hyde-Park,

with the duke or Ormond at their head; to him they made a speech, and

presented him with three skins, to enforce a request, that he would

forward their business with the queen. On their return, at Southampton,

Admiral Aylmer, who commanded a fleet there, sent his yatch to bring them

on board; they dined with him, and then sailed for America.


9 Vid. lieut. governor Hutchinson's hist. of the Massachusetts Bay, p.

397, &c.


10 The members ot council in his instructions were, Lewis Morris, William

Pinhorne, George Deacon, Richard Townley, Daniel Coxe, Roger Mompesson,

Peter Sonmans, Hugh Huddy, William Hall, Thomas Gordon, Thomas Gardiner,

Col. Robert Quarry.


11 The Members were,

For the town of Burlington: Isaac Decow, Robert Wheeler.

The county of Burlington: Thomas Lambert, Joshua Humphreys.

Gloucester: John Kay, John Kaighn.

The town of Salem: Hugh Middleton, John Mason.

The county of Salem: Bartholomew Wyat, Isaac Sharp.

Cape May: Peter Fretwell, Jacob Spicer.

The town of Perth-Amboy: John Johnston, John Reid.

The county of Middlesex: Thomas Farmer, Adam Hude.

Essex: Joseph Marsh, John Trent.

Bergen: Andreas Vanbuskirk, William Sanford.

Momouth: Gershom Mott, William Lawrence.

Somerset: Cornelius Longfield, John Tunison.


12 The two last had left the quakers, with G. Keith, and Sandford had

distinguished himself against them.


13 See above.