The present state of Indian affairs in New-Jersey.
To the accounts before given respecting the Indians, we now add other
particulars, as far as New-Jersey hath been concerned.
For nigh a century, such of them as were natives of that province, had all
along maintained an intercourse of great cordiality and friendship with the
inhabitants, being interspersed among them, and frequently receiving meat
at their houses, and other marks of good will and esteem: When the
troubles broke out among the back Indians, it was observed, that some who
had usually resided there, were missing, and supposed to have retired
In the year 1758, for a considerable time after the first hostilities had
commenced in Pennsylvania, the family of Nicholas Cole, in Walpack, nigh
the frontier of New-Jersey, were at two in the afternoon unexpectedly
attacked, and most of them murdered and carried off; this, and a few other
murders alarmed the province, as it was not known or supposed they had any
complaint against it.1 The legislature appointed commissioners to examine
into the treatment the Indians had received; they first met them at
Crosswicks, in the winter 1756, and heard what they had then to allege as
grievances, and promised to lay them before the legislature; which they
did at a session in 1757; when an act passed to remedy them, by laying a
penalty upon persons selling strong drink; so as to intoxicate them, and
declaring all Indian sales or pawns for drink, void; that the person of no
Indian should be imprisoned for debt, and that no traps larger than to
weigh three pounds and a half should be set, &,, and making all sales of
lands or leases void, not obtained according to the direction of the act.2
They afterwards, by another act, gave the commissioners power to
appropriate sixteen hundred pounds, in purchasing a general release of
Indian claims to New-Jersey; one half to be laid out in a settlement for
the Indians residing in the province to the south of Rariton river,
whereon they might reside, raise the necessary subsistence, and have
always in view the consideration they had received for the remainder of
their lands; the other half was to be applied to purchase any latent
claims among the back Indians not resident in the province.
The commissioners accordingly procured a second conference 3 with the first
mentioned; which was held at Crosswicks in the second month (February)
1758. They first reminded them, that they had above a year since informed
them, that the disorders committed in the back parts of Pennsylvania and
this colony, had not lessened the regard they entertained for their
friends the Indians, who in this time of trial lived peaceably and quietly
among the inhabitants, and assured them of the governor's protection; that
they had then desir'd they would make known any burthen that lay upon
their minds; that the Indians then signifying some abuses they were
subject to by private sales made by some of their own people, and the
inconveniencies they had suffered from setting iron traps for deer, being
cheated of their goods when in drink, and that they thought they had still
a right to some pieces of land, which they had not sold; that in
consequence of these demands, they, the commissioners, had faithfully
reported to the legislature, who had passed a law to prevent all future
abuses of that kind; and that they were now impowered fully to hear the
particulars of any claims they had to lands in the colony, which was
determined to do them strict justice: The Indians informed the
commissioners, that the lands they claimed, could not be by them described
by lines, very intelligible to persons not on the spot, as they went to
hollows, and small brooks, which had no certain names; but that they had
described them as well as they could: And then they delivered lists of the
tracts they esteemed unpurchased, as follows:
No. 1: A power of attorney from Capoose and Telaman, to Moses Totamy, dated
the 30th of January, 1743-4, for lands on the south and southwest side of
the south branch of Rariton, joining thereto; as explained by the said
No. 2: A paper declaring the lands from the half way from the mouth of
Metetcunk, to Tom's river, from the sea to the heads of the rivers, belong
to Capt. John, Totamy Willockwis; and from John Eastel's to Hockanetcunk,
on Crosswicks; then on a strait course to Mount-Holly, and so up Ranchocas
creek, to the head; and from thence to the heads of Wisteconk creek, and
along the said creek to Jarvis Farrow's Mill, and so to the sea. Pompshire
and Stephen Calvin, say, they are concerned in the tract.
No. 3: A power of attorney to Totamy, and Capt. John, dated the 21st of
February, 1742, from Tawleyneymun, Tohokenum, Gooteleck, to sell lands on
Egg-Harbour, between Mount-Holly and Crosswicks.
They have a tract of land beginning at the Old-Ford, by John Fowler's; then
on a line to Doctor's creek above, but in sight of Allen-Town; then up the
creek to the lower end of Imlay's town; then on a line to Crosswicks
creek, by Duke Horseman's; then along the said Creek to the place of
beginning. Teedyescunk and Totamy are concerned in the above lands. Then
they said, that from the Mouth of Squan, to No. 2. belongs to Sarah Store,
to whom it was given by her husband, to the heads of the branches, and so
across from one branch to the other. Tom Store and Andrew Wooley, claim a
tract between Cranbury and Devil's Brook, possessed by Josiah Davison's
sons, that has two new houses built thereon, in which is included the
whole tract of the late president Hamilton, and also Mr. Alexander's
surveys, where Thomas Sowden lives; he has sold part of this tract to
Hollinshead, where M'Gee lives; also has sold some to Josiah Davison, to
Doore Marlet, John and James Wilson: He claims lands from Cranbury brook,
to the cross roads, lying on the right hand of the road, and is claimed by
William Pidgeon; James Wall and John Story lives upon one corner of it;
also a piece upon Pompton river, the livers upon it he knows not; it lies
in one piece, and is the same that Mr. Woodruff and company, were about
purchasing of him.
They also claim from the mouth of Squan, to the mouth of Shrewsbury river,
by the streams of each, to their heads, and across from one head to the
other. Also Vanot's place, an the west side of Squan river. Also a piece
at Topanenus bridge: In this piece Ben Claus is concerned.
Tom Store and Andrew Wooley, also claim a piece on the north side of South
River. Polly Ritchies place
Also a piece between Allen-Town and Millstone brook, where Hockan Gapee
used to live, joining on the east side of the post road to Amboy; part of
Also, Vanse's place, joining to Millstone brook, on Amboy road; part of
Also a swamp near Gawen Watson's place, belonging to the Johnston's
family, and the Furmans.
Isaac Still claims from the mouth of Great Egg-Harbour river, to the head
branches thereof, on the east side; so to the road that leads to Great
Egg-Harbour; so along the road to the sea side, except Tuckahoe, and the
Summers, Steelman, and Skull's places.
Robert Kecott, claims in Piles grove, the places whereon John Mayhue's sons
Also the township of Deerfield, in the county of Cumberland, where the
presbyterian meeting house stands.
Also the tracts of James Wasse, Joseph Peck, and Stephen Chesup. Jacob
Mullis claims the pine lands, on Edge Pillock Branch, and Goshen Neck
Branch, where Benjamin Springer and George Marpole's mills stands; and
all the land between the head branches of those creeks to where the waters
join or meet.
Abraham Loques claims the Cedar-Swamp, on the east side, Tuckahoe Branch,
which John Campion and Peter Campbell have, or had in possession. Also
Stuypson's island, near Delaware river. Tom Store claims 30 acres
adjoining Richard Parks, wheelwright in Middlesex county.
Teedyescunk claims a tract; in Hunterdon, called Neshannock, beginning at
Philip Ringoe's house, which stands near a corner of it; and so along the
road that leads from thence to Brunswick, as far as Neshannock creek;
thence up the same to George Hatten's; thence on a strait course to
Petit's place, and so on to a hill called Paatquacktung; thence in a
strait line to the place of beginning; which tract was reserved at the
sale, and marked out by Wauhaway, who is alive.
The Indians in general, claim their settlements near Cranbury, on Menolapan
river, in Falkner's tract, whereon many of the Indians now live.
And also a few acres below the plantation of Robert Pearsons, on the north
side of Crosswicks creek.
Having delivered these claims to the commissioners the Indians present
executed a power of attorney, appointing Tom Store, Moses Totami, Stephen
Calvin, Isaac Still, and John Pompshire, or the major part of them, to
transact all future business with the government, respecting lands; and
then they released all claims for themselves, and their heirs, to the
proprietors of the respective divisions, and the purchasers under them, to
all the lands in New-Jersey, not included in the above list; and to such
of these likewise, as could be proved to be conveyed by deed from the
Indian inhabitants, except the claims of the Minisink and Pompton Indians,
on the northern parts; which power was acknowledged by all the parties,
before John Imlay, Esq; one of the judges of Burlington county, in
order to be first recorded, and then delivered to the Indian attornies.
Teedyescunk, the next day told the commissioners that he was very well
pleased with what was done, and esteemed the methods concluded on to be
just and equitable; and to this all the Indians gave their assent.
Thus things rested, 'till the latter part of the summer; when governor
Bernard procured a treaty with several of the back Indians, by means of
the following message:
"To Teedyescung, king of the Delaware Indians; by Moses Tetamy and
Isaac Stille, messengers deputed by me:
"I was surprised, on my arrival here with his majesty's royal commission
as governor of this his province, to find that invasions have been lately
made on the inhabitants of this colony, and much blood shed by Indians,
supposed to be those of Minisink or Pompton, who have resided within this
colony, and have sometime since withdrawn themselves; and as I have no
knowledge of any reason they, or any of them, have, for being
discontented, or offering violence to the inhabitants of his majesty's
colony under my government; and no public complaint have been made by the
Indians of Minisink or Pompton, formerly inhabitants of this colony, at
any of the conferences held between the commissioners of New-Jersey, and
the Indian inhabitants of the same; to prevent any further hostilities, I
hereby send you this power, to go to the Indians of Minisink and Pompton,
formerly inhabitants of this colony; and in my name, to desire them to
desist from hostilities, and kindly to invite them to a conference with
this colony; and to assure them they shall be received in the most
friendly manner, and every endeavour shall be used to establish and
confirm a friendship between the subjects of our great king George, our
common father, and them, as a thing of the greatest use. You are to
enforce the natural affection between us and them, and how much it is for
their interest to be at peace with a people, who have the means of making
them happy and easy, and have, by the blessing of providence, provisions,
and every necessary of life in plenty, sufficient to supply their friends
"As I have named a time, most convenient for them to be down here, it
would give me pleasure to see them then: But if unavoidable accidents
should put it out of their power to attend at that time; I have left the
time and place to themselves, so that it be in my government; and that
they come by Fort Allen, and enter New-Jersey, below the falls at Trenton,
and send an account of their arrival, that I may appoint persons to
receive and conduct them to me. I prescribe this path, because the people
above, who have lost their friends and relations, are so inflamed, as to
render it unsafe for them to enter this colony above Trenton.
"If you cannot go to the places of residence of the Minisink and Pompton
Indians, you are (or in case of your death or absence, that Moses Tetamy
and Isaac Still are) empowered to employ two good and faithful messengers,
to find out the chief place of the residence of these Indians, and to
deliver to them the message from me, with the belt and four strings of
wampum, and the safe conduct and flag given you herewith; and you are
desired to report to me, your proceedings herein, with all convenient
speed. Given under my hand and seal at arms, the 25th day of June, in the
thirty-second year of his majesty's reign. (L. S.) "By his excellency
Francis Bernard, Esq; captain general governor and commander in chief of
the colony of New-Jersey, &c."
"Brethren, the Minisink, or Munsy Indians, and those of Pompton:
"It is with great pain I am to tell you, that some Indians have invaded
our province on the upper parts of the Delaware, and shed much blood, and
that you are suspected to be concerned in it. A string.
"Brethren, if you have been instigated to this by the false suggestions of
our enemies, the French, we pity you; for these proceedings, if not
immediately prevented, must cause a discord between us, which though it
may be greatly hurtful to our people, must in the end entirely ruin yours.
"Brethren, the throne of the great king is founded on justice, and
therefore if you had received any injury from any of his people living
within our province, you should have made your complaints to me, who
am ordered to do justice to all men, and I would have heard you with
open ears, and given you full satisfaction. A string.
"Brethren, if therefore you have any anger boiling in your breasts, I, by
this belt, invite you to Burlington, in five weeks, at which time our
great council will be together; there to unburthen your minds, and root
out of your hearts the seeds of enmity, before they take too deep a root.
And I will kindle a council fire, and bury all the blood, that has stain'd
our ground, deep in the earth, and make a new chain of peace, that may
bind us and our children, and you and your children, in everlasting bonds
of love, that we may live together as brethren, under the protection of
the great king, our common father. A belt.
"Brethren, if these words shall please you, and you should choose that we
should be your friends rather than your enemies, let all hostilities
immediately cease, and receive this passport, and go to fort Allen; from
whence you shall be conducted to Bristol, where you will find deputies,
who will take you by the hand and lead you to me at Burlington: But if the
time and place I have mentioned, be inconvenient to you, I shall be ready
to receive you in this government when you can more agreeably to
yourselves, attend. A string.
At a conference held at Burlington, on monday, August 7, 1758.
PRESENT: His excellency Francis Bernard, Esq; governor. The honourable
James Hude, Andrew Johnston, Peter Kemble, Richard Saltar, Lewis M.
Ashfield, Samuel Woodruff, esquires, of his majesty's council; Charles
Read, John Stevens, William Foster, Esqrs, commissioners for Indian
affairs. Indians: Otawopass, or Benjamin, Coallins, or Goatshank,
messengers from the Minisink or Munsey Indians; Apewyet, or John Hudson, a
Cayugan; Samuel, a Delaware Indian; messengers from the Mingoians;
Taudakass, a Delaware Indian, who came with the Munsey Indians. John
Pumpshire, interpreter. Moses Totamy, Stephen Calvin, assistants.
His excellency sat, holding four strings of wampum in his hand, and spoke
to them as follows:
"As you are come from a long journey, through a wood full of briars: with
this string I anoint your feet, and take away their soreness: With this
string I wipe the sweat from your bodies: With this string I cleanse your
eyes, ears and mouth, that you may see, hear and speak, clearly; and I
particularly anoint your throat, that every word you say may have a free
passage from your heart: And with this string I bid you heartily welcome.'
Then delivered all the four strings.
"His excellency then informed them, that he should be ready to hear what
they had to say, in answer to the message he had sent to their chiefs, as
soon as would be convenient to them; when they informed him, they would be
ready in the afternoon: And thanked his excellency, for using the customs
of their fathers, in bidding them welcome."
PRESENT: As in the morning. The Indians being informed, that the governor
was ready to hear them, Benjamin, on behalf of the Munsey Indians, holding
a belt in his hand, spoke sitting, not being allowed to stand 'till the
Mingoian had spoke.
"At first when your messengers came to us at Assinske, twenty seven days
since, our ancient people were glad to hear them, and our young men, women
and children rejoiced at the tidings. We know you are great and strong,
and we took it kindly. All our friends and relations were in sorrow, and
pitied the condition of the women and of the children, who are growing up.
The kind words of our brethren the English, we sent to our uncles the
Mingoians; and one of them is come down here to the place of our meeting,
to be a witness of what passes between us."
Then John Hudson, the Cayugan, abovementioned, stood up, and spoke as
"In confirmation of what has been said to you, I, who am the Mingoian, am,
by this belt, to inform you, that the Munseys are women, and cannot hold
treaties for themselves; therefore I am sent to inform you, that the
invitation you gave the Munseys, is agreeable to us; and we have taken
hold of your belt; and I desire you may write down my attending here; tho'
while I am here, I left my family in danger of being cut off by our
enemies the French.
"Further, brother, I have told you your belt was agreeable, and received
by us as an earnest of your friendship: But tho' we are glad of this
opportunity of speaking with you, yet I am to inform you, that it is not
agreeable to our chief men and counsellors, to have a new council-fire
kindled, or the old one removed to this side of the river, from
Pennsylvania, where it hath always been kept burning; the reason is this,
we know the strength of the water, and that when the wind and tide is
strong, it roars, that our people cannot hear: so that it is proper we
should have the council-fire on the other side of the river nearer to us.
"Brother, I think this is a good reason why it should be so: For, though
we should speak loud, the distant nations will not hear us, if the roaring
waters are between us and them. We therefore hope, as the council-fire is
kindled, and kept burning in the forks of Delaware, by the desire of all
our nations we shall see our brother the governor there.
"Brother, we attend to the words we have heard from you: You say you are a
man of strength, and we believe you are. I am a man as well as you: I know
of no nation stronger than you; and our chief men and old councellers are
willing to meet you at the forks of Delaware, and to confirm our alliance,
and brighten the chain of friendship more clear than it has heretofore
been. This belt confirms what I have said."
He then delivered the governor a belt, on one side of which are three
figures of men in black wampum, representing the Shawanese, Delawares, and
Mingoians, living on the Ohio; on the other side, four figures
representing the united councils of the six nations, in their own country:
By their being now joined in this belt, he declared it expressed their
union. That the western Indians having consulted their uncles, now joined
in sending it, in pursuance of a belt of invitation sent them above a year
since, by George Croghan, on behalf of the English.
Then Benjamin, on behalf of the Munsies, stood up, and said:
"Our ancient people, and chief men, are glad to hear of the kind
disposition of the English. We believe you are wise and strong; and for
the good of our wives and children, for whose protection we are concerned,
that they may have some good and lasting settlement made for them to the
latest posterity, in order to obtain it, we should be glad of the
opportunity, to see all our brethren the English together. Our chief
men, and old councellors, are making ready to come to the council-fire,
in order to settle all matters which have been the cause of uneasiness
between us. We believe your professions are sincere, and that you will
agree upon what is most for the good of both you and us; and we shall be
ready to be advised by you, as we think you are wise. We are glad to
have an opportunity of conversing with you, without interruption, tho'
the sun is low: But we hope our and your ancient and wise men, will
have the happiness of consulting freely together, for the good of one
another, before it be dark; and that we shall meet one another with
sincerity and truth, as we expect the blessing from above to attend us
"And I am directed to inform you, that the Indian nations will be
next full moon after this, at the forks of Delaware, and will send the
governor word before hand, of the particular day they will be there, and
of their nations and numbers: And so you may make it known to whom
you think proper, that they may be present at our meeting.
"There are two nations besides the Munseys, parties to this message: The
Senecas, whose chief man is Tageeskata, and lives at Mahahensink; the
Cayugas, whose chief man is Eshakanata. The chief man of the Munseys, is
Tuesday, August 8, 1758.
PRESENT: His excellency the governor; the gentlemen of the council; the
commissioners for Indian affairs; the Indians, and the interpreters; as
yesterday. His excellency delivered the following answer to what the
Indians said yesterday:
"I am glad to hear, that our offers of peace and amity have been well
received by your people, and that they are disposed to brighten the chain
that heretofore had held us together, and to restore that brotherhood
that had for many years subsisted between us. Of late a great darkness
hath overshadowed the land, but we hope, that the sun is up that will
disperse the clouds that have hindred us from seeing one another, and
make all our future days bright and pleasant.
"We agree with you, that it would be best for us all to meet at the great-
council-fire that is kindled on the forks of Delaware: It is on many
accounts proper; and the particular circumstances of this province, make
it most agreeable to us. We differ from the neighbouring provinces in many
things: We have bounds set to our people, beyond which they neither nor
desire to pass; they are content with the cultivation of their lands, and
seek not for extraordinary gains, by following trade out of their own
country. As we have had little intercourse with your people, we can have
little cause of contention with them: The encroachments of unbounded
settlers, and the tricks of unfair traders, cannot be charged on us. All
we have to do, is to offer your people our friendship; which, if you will
sincerely and heartily accept of it, shall endure to you and your
children, as long as the sun shall shine, or the river on whose banks we
meet shall flow.
"Brethren, I speak the words of justice and benevolence, and not of fear.
It is well known to many of you, that as our people are industrious and
hardy, they are also bold and resolute: If they are attacked, they give
shot for shot, and blow for blow. But we should be sorry that this their
warlike spirit, should be turned again you our antient friends and
brethren: No; let it be exerted against the French, who are the common
enemies of us, of you, and of all people that would be free and
"Brethren, what I speak to you, I speak to those that sent you; and say to
our brethren, that we are honest and sincere in our professions to them;
and hope they will be so in what they profess to us. But as we have been
struck, without having injured any one, we shall expect that they will
give us a proof of their good intentions towards us, by bringing with them
all the prisoners that have been taken from us. Those among you, who are
husbands and fathers can best tell what our people must feel, who have had
their wives and children torn from them. We also expect, that until we
shall all meet at the great council fire, and these our mutual offers of
peace and friendship shall be brought to maturity, by a solemn and publick
treaty, you will not suffer your own people to commit hostilities against
us, nor any others to pass by you, without giving us early notice, to
prepare ourselves against them.
"Brethren, the great God, whom we serve, and who protects us, and gives us
all the blessings of life which we enjoy, hath commanded us to be just and
benevolent to all mankind. We are desirous to be so; and if we can be
assured, that your people will live on terms of friendship with us, the
lowest person among you shall receive no hurt from our people, that we can
prevent or redress. Of this I will give your people further assurance,
when we meet at the council fire: In the mean time, I confirm what I have
said by these belts." His excellency then delivered one belt to John
Hudson, the Cayugan, and one to Benjamin, the Munsey.
The two foregoing treaties, opened the way for another to be held the
October following, at Easton, in Pennsylvania; so much of this as concerns
the purchase of the Indian claims to the province of New-Jersey, were as
At a conference held at the town of Easton, on the eighth day of October,
PRESENT: The honourable William Denny, Esq; lieut. governor. Lawrence
Growdon, William Logan, Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew,
John Mifflin, esquires, members of the governor's council. Isaac Norris,
Joseph Fox, Joseph Galloway, John Hughes, Daniel Roberdeau, Amos
Strickland, esqrs., committee of the house of representatives. Charles
Read, Jacob Spicer, esquires, commissioners for Indian affairs, in the
province of New-Jersey. A number of magistrates and freeholders of this
and the neighbouring province, and of the citizens of the city of
Philadelphia, chiefly of the people called Quakers. George Croghan,
esquire, deputy agent for Indian affairs under Sir William Johnson.
Indians of several nations, viz.
Mohawks: Nichas, or Karaghtadie, with one woman and two boys. (In all 4)
Senecas: Tagashata, alias Takeaghsodo, alias Sigachsadon, chief man, with 7
other chiefs, 37 other men, 28 women and children. (In all 83)
Onondagas: Assaradonguas, with 9 men, 9 women and children. (In all 19)
Oneidos: Segughsonyout, alias Thomas King, Anagaraghiry, Assany quon, with
3 warrior captains, 6 warriors, and 33 women and children.
Cayugas: Tokaaio, with 8 men, 11 women and children. (20)
Tuscaroras: Nichaquantaquoah, alias Jonathan with 5 men, 12 women, and 2
Nanticokes: Robert White, alias Wolahocumy, Pashdomokas, alias Charles,
with 16 men, 20 women, and 18 children. (56)
Conoys: Kanakt, alias Last Night, with 9 men, 10 women, and 1 child. (21)
Tutelos: Cakanonekoanos, alias Big Arm, Asswagarat, with 6 men and 3 women.
Chogknots: Ten men, 20 women and children. (30)
Chihohockies: alias Delawares, and Unamies: Teedyuscung, with divers men,
women and children. (60)
Munsies or Minisinks: Egotchowen, with sundry men, women and children. (35)
Mawhickons: Abraham, or Mammatuckan,with several men, women, and
Wawpings or Pomptons: Nimham, Aquaywochtu, with sundry men, women, and
In all 507
Conrad Weiser, Esq; provincial Interpreter. Captain Henry Montour,
interpreter in Six Nation and Delaware languages. Stephen Calvin, Isaac
Stille, Moses Tetamy, Delaware Indians, interpreters in the Delaware
At a conference held at Easton with the Indians on the 11th of October,
PRESENT: Governor Denny, with his council, and the several Pennsylvania
gentlemen, as before. The Indians, &c. as before. His excellency Francis
Bernard, Esq; captain general and governor in chief of his majesty's
province of New-Jersey. The honourable Andrew Johnston, Charles Read, John
Stevens, Jacob Spicer, William Foster, Esqrs, commissioners of New-Jersey,
for Indian affairs.
Tagashata, the Seneca chief, intending to speak first, on behalf of the
Indians, had laid some belts and strings in order on the table.
As soon as the company sat down, Teedyuscung holding out a string, said he
had something to deliver, and desired he might be heard first of all. Mr.
Croghan requested to know, if what he was going to say was the result of
the Delaware council, and if it was their desire it should be spoke first;
but no answer was given, him as to this.
Governor Bernard signifying his desire to bid the Indians welcome, and just
mention to them the business he came upon, it was agreed he should speak
first; which he did as follows:
"I am glad to see so many of you met together, to cultivate peace with
your brethren and old friends the English. I heartily bid you welcome, and
with that the good work for which you are now assembled, may prosper in
your hands, and have that success, which your wise men, and all that wish
you well, must desire as a thing much to your advantage.
"The situation of the province over which I preside, and the disposition
of its people, have hitherto afforded very little occasion for treaties
with the neighbouring Indians; but having some months ago sent a message
to the Minisinks, I received a message from our brethren the Senecas and
Cayugas, wherein they take upon them to answer my message to the
Minisinks, and desire that I would meet them at the council fire burning
at this place.
"It is not usual for the king's governors to go out of their provinces to
attend treaties; but I am glad to have an opportunity of shewing my good
disposition to establish peace and friendship with my neighbours, and
therefore I have waved all form, and am come here according to the
invitation I received at Burlington.
"To you, therefore, our brethren the Senecas and Cayugas, and your nephews
the Minisinks, I now speak, and desire that you would take into your most
serious consideration, my message to the Minisinks, your message to me,
and my answer thereto, and let me know what we are to expect from you.
"What is past we are willing to forget; but I must remind you, that if you
are disposed to be our friends for the future, you should give us that
proof of your sincerity, which I have desired in my answer to your
message, and return us the captives that have been taken out of our
province, and are now within your power: This should be one of the first
steps, and will be the best that can be taken towards restoring and
confirming that brotherly love and friendship between us; which, I am
convinced, will be for the mutual benefit of all parties."
This was interpreted in the six nations language, by Mr. Weiser, and in the
Delaware, by Mr. Stephen Calvin, the Indian school-master in West-Jersey.
Then Teedyuscung spoke:
"I desire all of you who are present will give ear to me. As you, my
brethren, desired me to call all the nations who live back; I have done
so. Now if you have any thing to say to them, or they to you, you must
sit and talk together.
"Brethren, I sit by, only to hear and see what you say to one another; for
I have said what I have to say, to the governor of Pennsylvania, who sits
here; he knows what has passed between us. I have made known to him the
reasons why I struck him. Now I and the governor have made up these
differences between him and me; and I think we have done it as far as we
can for our future peace." A string.
The above speech was interpreted in the six nation language. Tagashata then
rose up, and spoke:
"Brethren, the governors, and your councils,
"It has pleased the most high, that we meet together here with chearful
countenances, and a good deal of satisfaction: And as publick business
requires great consideration, and the day is almost spent, I choose to
speak early tomorrow morning."
The governors answered, that they should be glad to give all the dispatch
possible to this good work they were engaged in, and desired the chiefs
would fix the time of meeting; but they declined it, saying, "They were
unacquainted with hours, but would give notice when they were ready."
At a conference held at Easton, on the 12th of October, 1758.
PRESENT: The governors; the gentlemen of their councils, and others, as
Tagashata, the Seneca chief, taking the strings and belt of wampum, which
governor Bernard gave yesterday, repeated according to the Indian custom,
the particulars of his speech, and then added:
"We approve of every article mentioned to us yesterday, by the governor of
Jersey; all that he said is very good: We look upon his message to us, as
a commission and request from him, that we should bring matters to a good
conclusion with our cousins the Minisinks. They themselves sent for us to
do the same thing, on their behalf; and at their request we came here,
have taken it in hand, and will use our utmost endeavours to bring about
the good work which governor Bernard desires, and do not doubt but it will
be done to his entire satisfaction.
"Brethren, I now speak at the request of Teedyuscung, and our nephews the
Delawares, living at Wyomink, and on the waters of the river Susquehannah.
"Brethren, we now remove the hatchets out of your heads, that was struck
into it by our cousins the Delawares: It was a French hatchet that they
unfortunately made use of; by the instigation of the French: We take it
out of your heads, and bury it under ground, where it shall always rest
and never be taken up again. Our cousins the Delawares, have assured us,
they will never think of war against their Brethren the English any more,
but employ their thoughts about peace, and cultivating friendship with
them, and never suffer enmity against them to enter into their minds
"The Delawares desired us to say this for them by this belt." A belt.
"Brethren, our nephews the Minisink Indians and three other different
tribes of that nation, have, at last, listened to us, and taken our
advice, and laid down the hatchet they had taken up against their brethren
the English. They told us they had received it from the French, but had
already laid it down, and would return it to them again.
"They assured us, they would never use it any more against you, but would
follow our advice; and entreated us to use our utmost endeavours to
reconcile them to you their brethren, declaring they were very sorry for
what they had done, and desired it might be forgotten, and they would
forever cultivate a good friendship with you. These declarations were made
by the principal warriors of four tribes of the Minisink Indians, at
giving us this belt." A belt.
Then taking eight strings of black wampum, he proceeded:
"We let you know, that we have not only brought about this union with our
nephews on the waters of the river Susquehannah, but we also have sent
messages to our nephews the Delawares and Minisinks, and to those likewise
of our own nations who are on the Ohio, under the influence of the French.
We have told all those, that they must lay down the French hatchet, and be
reconciled to their brethren the English, and never more employ it against
them. And we hope they will take our advice. We the Mohawks, Senecas, and
Onondagas, deliver this string of wampum, to remove the hatchet out of
your heads, that has been struck into them by the Ohio Indians; in order
to lay a foundation for peace."
Eight strings of black wampum.
Tagashata sat down, and then the Cayuga chief; Tokaaio, arose, and said:
"I speak in behalf of the younger nations, part of; and confederated with
the Six Nations, viz. the Cayugas, Oneidas, Tuscaroras, Tutaloes,
Nanticokes, and Conoys.
"A road has been made from our country to this council fire, that we might
treat about friendship; and as we came down the road, we saw, that by some
misfortune or other, blood has lately been spilt on it. By these strings
we make the road wider and clearer; we take the blood away out of it, and
likewise out of the council chamber, which may have been stained; we wash
it all away, and desire it may not be seen any more; and we take the
hatchet out of your heads." Gave three strings.
"Brethren, the governors, and all the English, I now confine myself to the
Cayugas, my own nation.
"I will hide nothing from you, because we have promised to speak to each
other from the bottom of our hearts.
"The French, like a thief in the night, have stolen a way some of our
young men, and misled them; and they have been concerned in doing mischief
against our brethren the English.
"We did not know it when it happened, but we discovered it since. The
chiefs of our nation held their young men fast, and would not suffer them
to go out of their sight; but the French came and stole them away from us,
and corrupted them to do mischief: We are sorry for it; we ask pardon for
them, and hope you will forgive them: We promise they shall do so no more:
And now, by this belt, we take out of your heads the hatchet with which
they struck you." A belt of ten rows.
He added, he had found out, "That some of their young men had been
concerned in striking the English four times."
At a conference with the Indians, on the 16th of October, 1758.
PRESENT: The governors and gentlemen of their council, &c.: Governor
"Brethren of all the confederated nations,
"As you proposed your questions concerning Teedyuscung separately, I think
proper to give you a separate answer thereto.
"I know not who made Teedyuscung so great a man; nor do I know that he is
any greater than a chief of the Delaware Indians settled at Wyomink; The
title of king could not be given him by an English governor; for we know
very well, that there is no such person among the Indians, as what we call
a king. And if we call him so we mean no more than a sachem, or chief. I
observe in his treaties which he has held with the governor of
Pennsylvania, [which I have perused since our last meeting] that he says
he was a woman, 'till you made him a man, by putting a tomhawk into his
hand; and through all of those treaties, especially in the last, held at
this town, he calls you his uncles, and professes that he is dependent on
you; and I know not that any thing has since happened to alter his
relation to you. I therefore consider him still to be your nephew.
"Brethren, I am obliged to you for your kind promises, to return the
captives which have been taken from us. I hope you will not only do so,
but will also engage such of our allies and nephews, as have taken
captives from us, to do the same. That you may be mindful, of this, I
give you this belt." A belt.
After the governor had done speaking, and their answers were interpreted in
the united nations and Delaware languages, the Indian chiefs were asked,
if they had any thing more to say. On which Tagashata arose, and made a
speech to his cousins the Delaware and Minisink Indians, directing his
discourse to Teedyuscung:
"You may remember all that passed at this council-fire. The governors who
sit there have put you in mind of what was agreed upon last year: They
both put you in mind of this promise, and desire you will perform it: You
have promised it, and must perform it. We your uncles promised to return
the prisoners. We your uncles, have promised to return all the English
prisoners among us, and therefore we expect that you our cousins and
nephews will do the same. As soon as you come home, we desire that you
will search carefully in your towns for all the prisoners among you that
have been taken out of every province, and cause them to be delivered up
to your brethren. You know that this is an article of this peace that was
made between you and your brethren: In confirmation of which you received
a large peace belt; of which belt we desire you will give an account, and
let us know what is become of it, and how far you have proceeded in it." A
After this was interpreted in the Delaware language, it was observed, that
there were no Minisink Indians present; the governors therefore desired,
that Mr. Peters and Mr. Read would procure a meeting of the chiefs of the
united nations, Delawares and Minisinks, and cause the speech of Tagashata
to be interpreted to the Minisinks in presence of their uncles.
Robert White, the Nanticoke chief; arose and said, he was going to speak in
behalf of seven nations, and directing his discourse to the governors, he
delivered himself in the English language as follows:
"It is now more than two years since we heard of our cousins the Delawares
taking up the hatchet against the English. At the first, Sir William
Johnston sent a message to the head nations, and when they received it,
they sent to us at Otsaningo; telling us, that as we lived close by our
cousins, they desired we would invite them to meet at our town, and
accordingly we invited them, and they came to a great meeting at our town
of Otsaningo. We then gave our cousius a belt of a fathom long, and twenty
five rows in breadth, and desired them to lay down the hatchet that they
had taken up against the English, and to be easy with them: And if they
would follow this advice, we told them, that they would live in peace,
until their heads were white with age; otherwise, it might not be so with
"Not hearing from our cousins for some time what they did in consequence
of this belt, we sent to them two other belts, one of sixteen and the
other of twelve rows, desiring them once more to be easy with their
brethren the English, and not to strike them any more: But still we
heard nothing from them; indeed sometime afterwards we understood the
Delawares should say, that the Indians at Otsaningo, had grey eyes, and
were like the English, and should be served as Englishmen; and we
thought we should have had the hatchet struck into our heads. We now
want to know what is become of these belts; may be they may be under
ground, or they may have swallowed them down their throats.
"Brethren, As our cousins have been loth to give any answer to these
belts, we now desire they may let us know, in public conference, what they
have done with them." A string.
17th October, 1758.
The indians were in council all day; and acquainted the governors, that
they could not be ready to meet before morning.
At a conference held at Easton the 18th October, 1758.
PRESENT: The governors, council, gentlemen and Indians, with the
interpreters: as aforesaid.
Mr. Peters and Mr. Read acquainted the governors: That at a meeting of the
chiefs of the older and younger nations, with the several tribes of the
Delaware and Minisink Indians, on Monday night, the speech of Tagashata,
delivered that morning in the publick conference, respecting the giving up
the prisoners, was interpreted in the Delaware language by Stephen Calvin;
and another belt, on the part of the governors, being joined to
Tagashata's belt, they were both delivered to the Delaware and Minisink
chiefs, to enforce the subject matter. When this was done, Tagashata spoke
to the Minisink chief Egotchowen, saying, "We were told by you, that you
had delivered up the English prisoners, and we believed you; but our
brethren have told us, that they were not delivered up, and therefore we
earnestly desire that they may be made easy on this article. You know,
cousins, that their hearts will always be in grief; 'till they see again
their flesh and blood: It is natural that they should be so: It would be
so with us, if it was our case. We desire you will be extremely careful to
perform this matter fully and soon; let there be perfect peace all over
the English country. And let it now be published, that we may all live in
peace, and with satisfaction, now and for ever. I told you, Egotchowen,
when you was in my town, to bring with you the English prisoners, and that
our brethren would expect it. I wish you had done it. But however, do it
now with all speed, and it will be well."
That Egotchowen answered, "It is true, I was at my uncles fire, and I
believe he desired me to bring the prisoners down; but I suppose it was
not interpreted to me; for I did not understand it clearly; but I now
That the Minisink and Delaware Indians were desired to collect all their
warriors together, and give them their belts, and receive from them their
answer, it being necessary they should concur heartily in whatever should
be concluded. Then Nichas, the Mohawk chief acquainted the governors,
that, as councellors, they had finished, having nothing to propose at this
The warriors were to speak now, and Thomas King was appointed to deliver
their words; who thereupon arose, and began, with an exhortation as well
to all concerned in publick affairs, governors and their councils, and
Indian chiefs and their councils, as to the warriors of all nations, white
people and Indians, desiring all present to attend carefully to what was
going to be related, as matters of great consequence, which would serve to
regulate the conduct of the English and Indians to each other. He added,
that the relation going to be made had taken a great deal of trouble to
put it into order, and it was made on information given by the several
nations now present who were acquainted with the facts.
"We, the warriors, have waited some time, in hopes our councellors would
have taken this matter in hand; but as they have not done it, we have, at
their desire, undertaken it, and they have approved of every thing. I say,
the councellors of the five younger nations, as well as the three older
nations, have approved of what the warriors are going to relate; and take
notice, that the speech is not only the speech of all the warriors of the
elder and younger nations, but of our cousins the Delawares and Minisinks."
This was interpreted in the Delaware language; and Thomas King then
proceeded, directing his speech to the governors, and all the English upon
"You have been inquisitive to know the cause of this war: You have often
inquired among us, but perhaps you did not find out the true cause of the
bitterness of our hearts, and may charge us wrongfully, and think that you
were struck without a cause by some of our own warriors, and by our
cousins. But if you look a little about you, you will find, that you gave
the first offence. For in time of profound peace, some of the Shawanese,
passing thro' South-Carolina, to go to war with their enemies, were taken
up and put into prison. The English knew they were going to war, and that
they used to do it every year: And yet, after they had persuaded them in a
friendly way into their houses, they were taken up and put into prison;
and one who was a head man of that nation lost his life, and the others
were severely used. This first raised ill-will in the minds of the
Shawanese, and as the French came a little after this happened to settle
on the Ohio, the Shawanese complained of it to them, and they made an
artful use of it, set them against the English, and gave them the hatchet.
Being resolved on revenge, they accepted it, and likewise spoke to their
grand-fathers the Delawares, saying, 'grand-fathers, are not your hearts
sore at our being used so ill, and at the loss of one of our chiefs? Will
you not join us in revenging his death?' So by degrees our young men were
brought over to act against you. On searching matters to the bottom, you
will find, that you in this manner, gave the first offence. This we
thought proper to let you know: It may be of service for the future. You
may he induced by this, to take better care in conducting your council-
business, so as to guard against these breaches of friendship; or as soon
as they happen, in corresponding immediately with one another, and with
the Indian nations, who are in any wise concerned on such occasion." Eight
strings of black wampum. "Brethren, this was the case of the Shawanese
that I have just now releated. Another of the like nature has since
happened to the Senecas, who have suffered in the same manner.
"About three years ago, eight Seneca warriors were returning from war
through Virginia, having seven prisoners and scalps with them. At a place
called Green Briar, they met with a party of soldiers, not less thau one
hundred and fifty, who kindly invited them to come to a certain store, and
said they would supply them with provisions: And accordingly they
travelled two days with them, in a friendly manner; and when they came to
the house, they took their arms from the Senecas: The head man cried out,
'Here is death, defend yourselves as well as you can;' which they did, and
two of them were killed on the spot; and one, a young boy, was taken
prisoner. This gave great offence, and the more so, as it was upon their
warriors road, and we were in perfect peace with our brethren. It provoked
us to such a degree, that we could not get over it.
"Brethren, you have justly demanded your prisoners; it is right; and we
have given you an answer: And therefore, as we think this young boy is
alive, and somewhere among you, we desire you will enquire for him. If he
be alive, return him; if you have swallow'd him down your throats, which
perhaps may be the case, let us know it, and we will be content. His name
is Squissatego." Six strings of white wampum.
"Brethren, we have one word more to mention of the same nature, and which
was the very cause why the Indians at Ohio left you.
"When we first heard of the French coming to Ohio, we immediately sent
word to the governors of Virginia and Pennsylvania; we desired them to
come, and likewise to supply us with such things as were proper for war,
intending to defend our lands, and hinder the French from taking the
possession of them: But these governors did not attend to our message;
perhaps they thought there was no foundation for our intelligence. The
French, however came, and become our neighbours; and you neither coming
yourselves, nor assisting us with warlike stores, our people of necessity
were obliged to trade with them, for what we wanted, as your traders had
left the country. The governor of Virginia took care to settle on our
lands for his own benefit; but when we wanted his assistance against the
French, he disregarded us." A belt.
"Brethren, at this treaty you justly demanded to see your flesh and blood.
We have pressed this on our cousins the Minisinks; and they by this
string, desired us to assure you, the governors, that they would make
strict search in their towns, and sincerely comply with your request, and
return all tile prisoners in their power." Two strings of black and white
Then directing his discourse to the governor of Jersey, he proceeded:
"Brother, the governor of Jersey,
"Our cousins the Minisinks, tell us, they were wronged out of a great deal
of land, and the English settling so fast, they were pushed back, and
could not tell what lands belonged to them. They say, if we have been
drunk, tell us so: We may have forgot what we sold; but we trust to you
the governor of Jersey, to take our cause in hand, and see that we have
justice done us. We say, that we have here and there tracts of land, that
have never been sold. You deal hardly with us; you claim all the wild
creatures, and will not let us come on your land to hunt after them. You
will not so much as let us peel a single tree: This is hard, and has given
us great offence. The cattle you raise are your own, but those which are
wild, are still ours, or should be common to both; for when we sold the
land, we did not propose to deprive ourselves of hunting the wild deer, or
using a stick of wood when we should have occasion. We desire the governor
to take this matter into his care, and see that justice be done in it."
Two strings of white wampum.
On the 19th October, 1758, at a private conference with the Indians, held
PRESENT: His excellency governor Bernard; The commissioners of New-Jersey;
The chiefs of the United Nations, and of the Minisinks and Wapings; George
Croghan, Esq; captain Henry Mountour and Stephen Calvin.
His excellency reciting the request of the United Nations to him, to do
justice to their nephews the Minisinks, concerning their claim to lands in
New Jersey, said, he would make diligent enquiry, what lands were
remaining unsold by them: But as that would be a work of time and expence,
he wished that some means could be found to give them satisfaction at this
meeting. The people of New-Jersey said, they had bought all, or the
greatest part of the Minisink lands; and the Minisinks said they had a
great deal of land unsold. He could not tell who was in the right; but
would suppose there were some lands unsold: And upon that supposition
would give, them some money by way of consideration for them, if they
would propose a reasonable sum; and desired they would advise about it,
and give an answer. The united nations said, it was a very kind proposal,
and recommended it to the consideration of the Minisinks.
At a private conference with the Indians, held at Easton, the 21st of
PRESENT: His excellency governor Bernard, and the Jersey commissioners;
Thomas King, chief of the Oneidas, Tagashata, chief of the Senecas,
Takaaio, chief of the Cayugas, Egohohowen, chief of the Minisinks,
Aquaywochtu, chief of the Wapings, with other Indians of the several
nations; George Crochan, esq, deputy to sir William Johnson; captain Henry
Montour, his majesty's interpreter to the United Nations; Mr. Stephen
Calvin, interpreter of the Delaware and Minisink languages.
His excellency informed them, that he met them to agree about a
consideration for the uncertain claims of the Minisinks, Wapings and other
Indians, claimants of land in the northern parts of the province of New-
Jersey, and desired that it might be considered, that they knew not what
they sold, and he knew not what he bought; therefore the price ought not
to be large.
That they might propose a sum to him, or he would make an offer to them; or
it should be left to their uncles to consider of a price, as would please
them best. The united nations, by Thomas King, said, that they had no
claim to the lands of the Minisinks, or others their nephews, on the east
side of Delaware, and should therefore leave the fixing a price to them.
Then the Minisinks and Wapings withdrew to consult about it; and being
returned, Egohohowen, the Minisink chief, said, that they would choose the
governor should make an offer, as they might perhaps demand too much.
His excellency having cousulted the commissioners, offered them eight
hundred Spanish dollars for their claim in New-Jersey, as an extraordinary
price. The Minisinks said, they should be glad of the opinion of their
uncles in the matter.
The United Nations, by Thomas King, said, it was a fair and honourable
offer, and that, if it was their own case, they would chearfully accept of
it. But as there were a great many persons to share in the purchase money,
they recommended it to his excellency, to add two hundred dollars more;
and, if that was complied with, the report of it would be carried to all
the nations, and would be a great proof of the affection and generosity of
their brethren the English, on this occasion, and would be very agreeable
His excellency desired to know of the Minisinks, and other claimants, if
they approved of the proposal of their uncles; and they informed him, that
they did. The governor after consulting the commissioners, said, it was
more than he had intended to give; but as the United Nations had given
themselves the trouble of being mediators between them, he could not
refuse their recommendations, and was glad of the opportunity he had of
shewing his regard to the United Nations, and his benevolence to the
Minisink and other Indians, who had resided in the province where he
presided; and therefore complied with their request.
His excellency then desired them to remember, that this consideration
money, was to be in full for the claims of all the Minisink and Waping
Indians, and all others who claim any lands, in a map, which was laid
before them at the same time, which included all the lands from the line
between the provinces of New-York and New-Jersey, and down Hudson's river,
to the mouth of Rariton up the same to Alametung Falls, on the north
branch of Rariton river, thence on a streight line to Paoqualin Mountain,
where it joins on Delaware river, and thence up the Delaware to Cushytunk;
and recommended it to them to have respect to this in the division of the
Then Tagashata, the Seneca chief, arose, and addressing himself to the
Minisinks and other Indian claimants, spoke as follows:
"I desire you will now give over all thoughts of your land, and that we
may hear no more complaints about it.
"Now you must remember the friendship between you and your brother, and
transmit to your children, and make them acquainted with the transactions
of this day. I recommended this to you, not from my lips only, but from
the bottom of my heart: I hope it will also make a deep impression, in
"It seems, as if your grandfathers had not told you of the treaties they
used to have with their brethren, but carried them with them to the grave.
But we hope you will not do so, but carefully inform your children of your
agreements. We have given you this advice, and hope you will follow it. We
also expect you will take care of your young men, that they do no more
mischief to their brethren the English."
Egohohowen, then addressed himself to the governor, and desired to be
"We are now thoroughly satisfied; and we still retain a friendship for our
brethren the English, and we desire, that if we should come into your
province, to see our old friends, and should have occasion for the bark of
a tree to cover a cabin, or a little refreshment, that we should not be
denied, but be treated as brethren: And that your people may not look on
the wild beasts of the forest, or fish of the waters, as their sole
property; but that we may be admitted to an equal use of them."
The governor answered, that, as soon as he got home, he should issue a
proclamation, to notify to the people of his province, that he had made a
peace with them, and to order, that, for the future, they should be
treated as brethren, which he hoped would be done: But desired they would
not go into those parts, where they had lately committed hostilities,
'till the people's passions were cooled; for he could not be answerable
for his people's behaviour, whilst their losses were fresh upon their
The 21st of October.
PRESENT: All the confederate Chiefs: Teedyuscung; Nowalkeeka, alias Four
steps; Awehela, alias James Davis; Egohohowen, Munsey chief; Tapiscawen,
alias Samuel Davis; Philip Compass; Lappink; Moses Tetamy: Conrad Weiser,
Henry Montour, Isaac Stille, interpreters.
Governor Bernard, requesting the attention of the Indians, addressed them
"Brethren of the united nations,
"By this string, you spoke on behalf of our brethren the Minisinks, and
said, That they were wronged in their lands; that the English settled so
fast, they were continually pushing them back; and when they asked for
their lands, they were told that they had sold their land, and had got
drunk and forgot it. If they had swallowed their lands, they must be
content; but they did not believe that they had swallowed all, but that
some was left. They desired, that I would enquire after their lands that
were left, and do them justice.
"Brethren, I am glad I have an opportunity, in the presence of so many
nations, to express the desire I have of doing justice to every one.
The throne of the great king is founded on justice: And I should not be a
faithful servant to him, if I neglected to give redress to all persons,
that have received injuries from the people, over whom the great king has
"I have therefore had a conference with the Minisinks, in the presence of
some of their uncles; and have come to a full agreement with them, the
proceedings of which are now ready to be read to you.
"Brethren, I have another proof to give you of the uprightness and justice
of our province. We have come to an agreement with the Delawares, and
other Indians, for the uncertain claims they had on the southern parts of
our province. I hereby produce the deeds, that have been executed on this
occasion, that the subject of them may be explained to you, and be had in
perpetual remembrance by all the nations present: And I desire that you
may all remember, that, by these two agreements, the province of New-
Jersey is entirely freed and discharged from all Indian claims. In
confirmation of which I give you this belt." A
"Brother Teedyuscung, by this string you tell me, that, after the killing
the nine Indians near Esopus, you carried three belts to George Vreeland,
who undertook to give them to the governor, and you ask what is become of
"Brother, I can only say, that I never heard of those belts before; nor do
I know, what governor George Vreeland undertook to carry those belts to.
The proper governor was the governor of New-York; for in his province was
this mischief committed. And probably the governor of New-York had these
belts; for I have heard that he issued a proclamation for apprehending the
perpetrators of this fact. This fact has been blamed by all good and wise
men; and I am glad it was not done by the people of my province. I will
acquaint the governor of New-York with what you have said upon this
occasion, and I will enquire after those belts, and give you an answer. A
Governor Denny, being obliged to return to Philadelphia, on urgent
business, took his leave of the Indians, saying:
"It gives me great pleasure that the business of this treaty has been
carried on with so much satisfaction.
"I am sorry, I am now to inform you, that I am obliged to leave you,
having received last night an express from general Forbes, who is now near
the Ohio. My business calls me to town; I shall therefore leave Mr. Logan
and Mr. Peters to transact the remainder of the business, and doubt not
but they will act to your satisfaction. I assure you of my affection for
you, and wish you all manner of happiness."
Teedyuscung arose, and desired to be heard on behalf of the Wapings, living
near Esopus, and produced a short broad belt of white wampum, having in the
center, two hearts of a reddish colour, and in figures 1745, wrote after
the following manner, "17 [two hearts] 45" The belt had a round circle
pendant, representing the sun: He then produced two certificates, one from
governor Clinton, and the other from governor Hardy, both which were much
in favour of the Waping Indians. He said the belt was given them by the
government of New-York, and represented their union, which was to last as
long as the sun should continue in the firmament.
Teedyuscung addressed governor Bernard, desiring by a string of wampum,
that he would extend his protection to the Wapings; and as their chief was
old and infirm, he requested the favour of a horse to carry him home;
which was readily granted.
Tagashata made the same request to governor Denny, which was likewise
The Six Nation chiefs consulted together, and in a little time, Nichas, in
their behalf, returned an answer to the speeches of the governors, laying
the belts and strings upon the table, in the order they were delivered,
and repeating distinctly what was said on each of them. At the end of
every article he returned thanks, and expressed the highest satisfaction,
particularly on the ratifying the peace, and the large belt given
thereupon, which he said should be sent to all the distant nations of
Indians, to whom it would be very agreeable; he likewise promised, that
every thing transacted in these conferences, which he again said had
afforded them great pleasure, should be laid before the great council at
Onondaga, whose answers should be carefully transmitted.
He thanked governor Bernard for making up all the differences between that
government and the Minisink Indians so much to their satisfaction.
He made an apology for the want of wampum, and the exchange of other
belts to give in confirmation of their performance of the several things
mentioned in the governors speeches, agreeable to Indian customs. And then
wished governor Denny a good journey.
At a conference with the Indians, held at Easton, on the 26th of October
PRESENT: His excellency governor Bernard, William Logan, Richard Peters,
Andrew Johnston, Charles Read, John Stevens, George Croghan, Conrad Weiser,
Charles Swaine, esquires., Major Ordnt, the sheriff of Northampton county,
John Watson, the chiefs of the United Nations, and of the other nations,
and the interpreters, as aforementioned.
Mr. Secretary Peters having observed to the confederate chiefs, that the
governors were by Tokaaio, charged with having omitted some things in their
answers, and desired to know what they were, Thomas King said, that in
regard to some things they had been since supplied, and recommended that
some other things should be more particularly taken notice of; than they
had been. Wherefore agreeable to this advice, the following speech was
spoke by the memhers of the Pennsylvania council, governor Bernard
"As we have now settled all differences, and confirmed the antient leagues
of amity, and brightened the chain of friendship; we now clean the blood
off your council seats, and put them in order, that when you hold councils
at home, you may sit in your seats with the same peace and tranquility as
you formerly used to do." A string consisting of a thousand grains of
"Brethren, with this string of wampum, we condole with you for the loss of
your wise men, and for the warriors that have been killed in these
troublesome times, and likewise for your women and children, and we cover
their graves decently agreeable to the custom of your fore-fathers." A
string of a thousand grains of wampum.
"Brethren, we disperse the dark clouds that have hung over our heads,
during these troubles, that we may see the sun clear, and look on each
other with the chearfulness our forefathers did." A string of a thousand
grains of wampum.
Then Mr. Peters and Mr. Weiser produced the confirmation deed, executed
by the chiefs of the United Nations: as before set forth, which the Indian
chiefs acknowledged to have been their voluntary act and deed, and that
they clearly understood the contents thereof; together with the limits
described in the draught annexed to it; and the same being handed from
Indian to Indian, all round the house, it was delivered to the
After which the Indian chiefs produced the proprietary deed of release,
executed by Mr. Peters and Mr. Weiser, the proprietary's agents, who
acknowledged it to be their act and deed, in behalf of their constituents,
as well as their own, and re-delivered it to the Indians, together with
His excellency governor Bernard produced the following deeds, executed by
five Indian attornies, appointed by a council of the Delaware nations, for
all the lands lying in New-Jersey, south of a line from Paoqualin
mountains at Delaware river, to the falls of Alamatung, on the north
branch of Rariton river, thence down that river to Sandy-Hook; dated the
12th of September last, with endorsements thereon, made by Teedyuscung,
Unwallacon and Tepascawen, signifying their agreement thereto, and
acknowledgment of their having received satisfaction thereon; witnessed by
three chiefs of the Six Nations, who in behalf of the Six Nations,
approved the sale, and also by several English witnesses. And another
deed, dated the 23d October instant, at Easton; from the chiefs of the
Munsies, Wapings, Opings, or Pomptons, sixteen in number, and including
all the remaining lands in New-Jersey, beginning at Cushytunk, and down
the division lines between New-Jersey and New-York, to the mouth of Tappan
creek at Hudson's river, and down the same to Sandy Hook, thence to the
mouth of Rariton, thence up that river to the falls of Alamatung, thence
on a strait line to Paoqualin mountains, where it joins on Delaware river,
thence up the river Delaware to Cushytunk; endorsed by Nimham, a chief of
the Opings or Pomptons, who was sick at the execution thereof; and appoved
by the Six Nations; which was testified by three of their chiefs, signing
as witnesses thereto: And governor Bernard desired, that all present might
take notice of the same, and remember that the Indian titles to all the
lands in New-Jersey, were conveyed by those two deeds.
Which being interpreted in the Mingo and Delaware languages; his
excellency addressed the Indians, as follows:
"I am very glad this good work has been so happily finished. I came among
you wholly unacquainted with your forms, and therefore if I have omitted
any ceremonies, you will readily excuse me. But in whatever I have been
deficient, I am sure, I have not wanted a good heart towards you.
"The circumstances of our province, have hitherto rendered us unable to
give you any great proofs of our regard for you. But I shall endeavour to
persuade my people, to do you good service for the future, by opening a
communication with you; which if rightly managed, will be much to the
advantage of both people. And for my own part, I shall be always ready to
do you justice; and desire that whenever you have cause of complaint
against my people, you will take care to signify it to me." A string.
The Five Nation chiefs, laid all the belts and strings on the table, that
were delivered at this and the last conference. Tokaaio, the Cayuga chief;
desired the governor and all present, would take notice of what Thomas
King was going to say, on behalf of the United Nations.
On which Thomas King arose, and taking up the first belt which was given
by Teedyuscung, when he requested a deed for the Wioming lands, he
addressed the Delawares, (Teedyuscung not being present) as follows:
"By this belt, Teedynscung desired us to make you the owners of the lands
at Wioming, Shamokin, and other places on the Susquehannah river; in
answer to which, we who are present say, That we have no power to convey
lands to any one; but we will take your request to the great-council-fire,
for their sentiments, as we never sell or convey any land, 'till it be
agreed on at the great council of the United Nations. In the mean time,
you may make use of these ]ands, in conjunction with our people, and all
the rest of our relations, the Indians of the different nations in our
Which being interpreted into Delaware, the string of wampum was given to
Moses Tetamy and James Davis, to be delivered to Teedyuscung, as he was not
Then taking up each belt and string in the order it was delivered in this,
and the last conference, he proceeded to repeat distinctly, what had been
said under each article, returning thanks for all those good speeches,
which he said, were extreamly agreeable. He made particular mention of the
large peace belt, saying, "The nations are greatly pleased, that all the
ancient treaties made here, at Albany, and elsewhere, are renewed, as well
as that the old council-fire at Philadelphia, is kindled again, and a good
road made to it, that may be travelled without any danger: These in
particular, as well as every other matter transacted at these conferences,
we will make known to our own nations, and to every other in friendship
and alliance with us, and we are sure they will be very well received."
Then addressing governor Bernard, he thanked him for his farewell speech,
saying, "It was a very kind one, and that they were much pleased with his
having been present, and given his assistance at this treaty, which had
given them an opportunity of gaining an acquaintance with him, which they
would ever remember with pleasure. After a pause, he desired to be excused
for mentioning some things that had been omitted by the governors and
"They have forgot to bring with them ammunition, of which we always used
to receive a sufficient quantity, not only to serve us in our journey, but
to support us in our hunting season, that we might be enabled to make
provision for our families. They have given us gunlocks without guns,
which are of no manner of use to us; and therefore this must have surely
been forgot; as it is impossible for Indians to subsist without guns,
powder and lead, of which we have received none.
"As many of us are old and infirm, we desire our brethren, will be so good
as to furnish us with a number of waggons, to convey such of us, as are
not able to walk, and the goods you have been pleased to give us, as far
as Wioming, where we have left our canoes, and then we will discharge the
waggons, and they may come back again.
"We further desire a supply of provisions may be put into the waggons,
enough to serve us 'till we get to our respective habitations." He then
took up the proprietary release, and returned thanks for it. He said,
"When the United Nations first made the request to sir William Johnson to
be transmitted to Onas, they had no doubt but Onas would comply with it,
having always found him ready to grant all their requests. With him we
have never had any difference; he has always settled our affairs without
giving us any trouble, and to our satisfaction. We heartily thank Onas;
this act confirms us in the good opinion we always had of him."
Then addressing himself to the Delawares, with a string of wampum, he
spoke as follows:
"This serves to put Teedyuscung in mind of his promises, to return the
prisoners: Remember, cousins, you have made this promise in our presence;
you did it indeed before, and you ought to have performed it: To tell
lies, does not become a great man: A great man always keeps his word, and
performs his promises. Cousins, you must not now fail to keep your word:
We are all now one people, and we must all be punctual in the performance
of our engagements."
This was interpreted into the Delaware language, and the string was given
to Moses Tetamy, to be delivered to Teedyuscung.
Then he said the United Nations had finished what they had to say. Some
wine and punch was called for, and mutual healths were drank, and the
conferences were concluded with great satisfaction.
In consequence of the expectations given the Indian inhabitants, the
commissioners, with the consent of the Indian attornies, purchased a tract
of upwards of 3000 acres, called Brotherton, situate in Burlington county,
in which is a cedar swamp and saw-mill, adjoining to many thousand acres
of poor uninhabited land, suitable for hunting, and convenient also for
fishing on the sea-coast; the deed was taken in the name of the governor
and commissioners, and their heirs, in trust for the use of the Indian
natives who have or do reside in tbis colony south of Rariton, and their
successors for ever, with a clause, providing that it shall not be in the
power of the Indians, their successors, or any of them, to lease or sell
any part thereof; and any person (Indians excepted) attempting to settle
there, to be removed by warrant from a justice of the peace; no timber to
to be cut but by the Indians, under penalty of forty shillings fine for
every tree. The Indians soon after the purchase, removed to the
settlement, and there remain to their satisfaction, having their usual
means of living very convenient; they were assisted by the government, in
their removing and buildings: There are about sixty persons seated here,
and twenty at Weekpink, on a tract formerly secured by an English right,
to the family of king Charles, an Indian sachem.
Some time after the treaty at Easton, fresh hostilities being commenced by
the back Indians, and approaching very near the frontiers of Jersey, it
was feared, notwithstanding these agreements, they would prove perfidious;
which occasioned a guard to be placed there: Part of the address of the
assembly to governor Franklin, in the spring, 1764, sets this and the
present state of Indian affairs, in a true light; and with that we
conclude the subject.
"In the original settlement of this province, great circumspection and
care was used to gain and preserve the friendship of the Indian natives;
their lands were from time to time, fairly and openly purchased, to their
general satisfaction: This conciliated their affection; and for a long
course of time, they were eminently serviceable to the new settlers; and
since the beginning of their hostilities, lest some among them should
think any part of our lands remained unpurchased, care was taken at the
treaty of Easton, 1758, to obtain for a valuable consideration, a general
release for all the lands in this province, such parts only excepted, as
were reserved for the use of those Indians that inclined to live under the
protection of this government; this was done, and the money paid in open
council, and their approbation universally expressed: Such therefore being
the circumstance of this province, with regard to the Indians, it became a
matter of astonishment to us, that any conduct of theirs should give
reason to fear their intentions respecting us; and whether they had
actually any design upon this province or not, their hostilities in the
neighbourhood of our frontier, and in one doubtful instance, over the
line, were inducements to place a frontier guard of two hundred men for
the winter last."
1 They had, to one of the messengers sent from Pennsylvania, complained of
the death of the sachem Weequehelah; but this was looked upon as meer
pretence to colour their attempts with the appearance of justice; as that
Indian was known to have been executed for actual murder, and to have had
a legal trial: The fact was, he was an Indian of great note and account
both among Christians and Indians, of the tribe that resided about South-
river, where he lived with a taste much above the common rank of Indians,
having an extensive farm, cattle, horses and negroes, and raised large
crops of wheat, and was so far English in his furniture as to have a house
well provided with feather beds, calico curtains, &c. He frequently dined
with governors and great men, and behaved well; but his neighbour, captain
John Leonard, having purchased a cedar swamp of other Indians, to which he
laid claim, and Leonard refusing to take it on his right, he resented it
highly, and threatened that he would shoot him; which he accordingly took
an opportunity of doing in the spring 1728, while Leonard was in the day
time walking in his garden or near his own house, at South-river aforesaid.
2 Vide vol. 2 of laws, p. 127.
3 The commissioners were, Andrew Johnston and Richard Salter, esquires, of
the council, and Charles Read, John Stevens, William Foster and Jacob
Spicer, esquires. The Indians were, Teedyescunk, king of tbe Delawares.
George Hopayock, from the Susquehanah. Crosswick Indians: Andrew Wooley,
George Wheelwright, Peepy, Joseph Cuish, William Loulax, Gabriel Mitop,
Zeb. Conchee, Bill News, John Pembolus. Mountain Indians: Moses Totamy,
Philip. Rariton Indian: Tom Evans. Ancocus Indians: Robert Kekott, Jacob
Mullis, Samuel Gosling. Indians from Cranbury: Thomas Store, Stephen
Calvin, John Pompshire, Benjamin Claus, Joseph Wooley, Josiah Store, Isaac
Still, James Calvin, Peter Calvin, Dirick Quaquay, Ebenezar Wooley, Sarah
Stores widow of Quaquahela. Southern Indians: Abraham Loques, Isaac
Swanelac. John Pompshire, interpreter.