The present state of Indian affairs in New-Jersey.


To the accounts before given respecting the Indians, we now add other

particulars, as far as New-Jersey hath been concerned.


For nigh a century, such of them as were natives of that province, had all

along maintained an intercourse of great cordiality and friendship with the

inhabitants, being interspersed among them, and frequently receiving meat

at their houses, and other marks of good will and esteem: When the

troubles broke out among the back Indians, it was observed, that some who

had usually resided there, were missing, and supposed to have retired

among them.


In the year 1758, for a considerable time after the first hostilities had

commenced in Pennsylvania, the family of Nicholas Cole, in Walpack, nigh

the frontier of New-Jersey, were at two in the afternoon unexpectedly

attacked, and most of them murdered and carried off; this, and a few other

murders alarmed the province, as it was not known or supposed they had any

complaint against it.1 The legislature appointed commissioners to examine

into the treatment the Indians had received; they first met them at

Crosswicks, in the winter 1756, and heard what they had then to allege as

grievances, and promised to lay them before the legislature; which they

did at a session in 1757; when an act passed to remedy them, by laying a

penalty upon persons selling strong drink; so as to intoxicate them, and

declaring all Indian sales or pawns for drink, void; that the person of no

Indian should be imprisoned for debt, and that no traps larger than to

weigh three pounds and a half should be set, &,, and making all sales of

lands or leases void, not obtained according to the direction of the act.2


They afterwards, by another act, gave the commissioners power to

appropriate sixteen hundred pounds, in purchasing a general release of

Indian claims to New-Jersey; one half to be laid out in a settlement for

the Indians residing in the province to the south of Rariton river,

whereon they might reside, raise the necessary subsistence, and have

always in view the consideration they had received for the remainder of

their lands; the other half was to be applied to purchase any latent

claims among the back Indians not resident in the province.


The commissioners accordingly procured a second conference 3 with the first

mentioned; which was held at Crosswicks in the second month (February)

1758. They first reminded them, that they had above a year since informed

them, that the disorders committed in the back parts of Pennsylvania and

this colony, had not lessened the regard they entertained for their

friends the Indians, who in this time of trial lived peaceably and quietly

among the inhabitants, and assured them of the governor's protection; that

they had then desir'd they would make known any burthen that lay upon

their minds; that the Indians then signifying some abuses they were

subject to by private sales made by some of their own people, and the

inconveniencies they had suffered from setting iron traps for deer, being

cheated of their goods when in drink, and that they thought they had still

a right to some pieces of land, which they had not sold; that in

consequence of these demands, they, the commissioners, had faithfully

reported to the legislature, who had passed a law to prevent all future

abuses of that kind; and that they were now impowered fully to hear the

particulars of any claims they had to lands in the colony, which was

determined to do them strict justice: The Indians informed the

commissioners, that the lands they claimed, could not be by them described

by lines, very intelligible to persons not on the spot, as they went to

hollows, and small brooks, which had no certain names; but that they had

described them as well as they could: And then they delivered lists of the

tracts they esteemed unpurchased, as follows:


No. 1: A power of attorney from Capoose and Telaman, to Moses Totamy, dated

the 30th of January, 1743-4, for lands on the south and southwest side of

the south branch of Rariton, joining thereto; as explained by the said



No. 2: A paper declaring the lands from the half way from the mouth of

Metetcunk, to Tom's river, from the sea to the heads of the rivers, belong

to Capt. John, Totamy Willockwis; and from John Eastel's to Hockanetcunk,

on Crosswicks; then on a strait course to Mount-Holly, and so up Ranchocas

creek, to the head; and from thence to the heads of Wisteconk creek, and

along the said creek to Jarvis Farrow's Mill, and so to the sea. Pompshire

and Stephen Calvin, say, they are concerned in the tract.


No. 3: A power of attorney to Totamy, and Capt. John, dated the 21st of

February, 1742, from Tawleyneymun, Tohokenum, Gooteleck, to sell lands on

Egg-Harbour, between Mount-Holly and Crosswicks.


They have a tract of land beginning at the Old-Ford, by John Fowler's; then

on a line to Doctor's creek above, but in sight of Allen-Town; then up the

creek to the lower end of Imlay's town; then on a line to Crosswicks

creek, by Duke Horseman's; then along the said Creek to the place of

beginning. Teedyescunk and Totamy are concerned in the above lands. Then

they said, that from the Mouth of Squan, to No. 2. belongs to Sarah Store,

to whom it was given by her husband, to the heads of the branches, and so

across from one branch to the other. Tom Store and Andrew Wooley, claim a

tract between Cranbury and Devil's Brook, possessed by Josiah Davison's

sons, that has two new houses built thereon, in which is included the

whole tract of the late president Hamilton, and also Mr. Alexander's

surveys, where Thomas Sowden lives; he has sold part of this tract to

Hollinshead, where M'Gee lives; also has sold some to Josiah Davison, to

Doore Marlet, John and James Wilson: He claims lands from Cranbury brook,

to the cross roads, lying on the right hand of the road, and is claimed by

William Pidgeon; James Wall and John Story lives upon one corner of it;

also a piece upon Pompton river, the livers upon it he knows not; it lies

in one piece, and is the same that Mr. Woodruff and company, were about

purchasing of him.


They also claim from the mouth of Squan, to the mouth of Shrewsbury river,

by the streams of each, to their heads, and across from one head to the

other. Also Vanot's place, an the west side of Squan river. Also a piece

at Topanenus bridge: In this piece Ben Claus is concerned.


Tom Store and Andrew Wooley, also claim a piece on the north side of South

River. Polly Ritchies place


Also a piece between Allen-Town and Millstone brook, where Hockan Gapee

used to live, joining on the east side of the post road to Amboy; part of

Dunstar's tract.


Also, Vanse's place, joining to Millstone brook, on Amboy road; part of

Fullerton's tract.


Also a swamp near Gawen Watson's place, belonging to the Johnston's

family, and the Furmans.


Isaac Still claims from the mouth of Great Egg-Harbour river, to the head

branches thereof, on the east side; so to the road that leads to Great

Egg-Harbour; so along the road to the sea side, except Tuckahoe, and the

Summers, Steelman, and Skull's places.


Robert Kecott, claims in Piles grove, the places whereon John Mayhue's sons



Also the township of Deerfield, in the county of Cumberland, where the

presbyterian meeting house stands.


Also the tracts of James Wasse, Joseph Peck, and Stephen Chesup. Jacob

Mullis claims the pine lands, on Edge Pillock Branch, and Goshen Neck

Branch, where Benjamin Springer and George Marpole's mills stands; and

all the land between the head branches of those creeks to where the waters

join or meet.


Abraham Loques claims the Cedar-Swamp, on the east side, Tuckahoe Branch,

which John Campion and Peter Campbell have, or had in possession. Also

Stuypson's island, near Delaware river. Tom Store claims 30 acres

adjoining Richard Parks, wheelwright in Middlesex county.


Teedyescunk claims a tract; in Hunterdon, called Neshannock, beginning at

Philip Ringoe's house, which stands near a corner of it; and so along the

road that leads from thence to Brunswick, as far as Neshannock creek;

thence up the same to George Hatten's; thence on a strait course to

Petit's place, and so on to a hill called Paatquacktung; thence in a

strait line to the place of beginning; which tract was reserved at the

sale, and marked out by Wauhaway, who is alive.


The Indians in general, claim their settlements near Cranbury, on Menolapan

river, in Falkner's tract, whereon many of the Indians now live.


And also a few acres below the plantation of Robert Pearsons, on the north

side of Crosswicks creek.


Having delivered these claims to the commissioners the Indians present

executed a power of attorney, appointing Tom Store, Moses Totami, Stephen

Calvin, Isaac Still, and John Pompshire, or the major part of them, to

transact all future business with the government, respecting lands; and

then they released all claims for themselves, and their heirs, to the

proprietors of the respective divisions, and the purchasers under them, to

all the lands in New-Jersey, not included in the above list; and to such

of these likewise, as could be proved to be conveyed by deed from the

Indian inhabitants, except the claims of the Minisink and Pompton Indians,

on the northern parts; which power was acknowledged by all the parties,

before John Imlay, Esq; one of the judges of Burlington county, in

order to be first recorded, and then delivered to the Indian attornies.


Teedyescunk, the next day told the commissioners that he was very well

pleased with what was done, and esteemed the methods concluded on to be

just and equitable; and to this all the Indians gave their assent.


Thus things rested, 'till the latter part of the summer; when governor

Bernard procured a treaty with several of the back Indians, by means of

the following message:


"To Teedyescung, king of the Delaware Indians; by Moses Tetamy and

Isaac Stille, messengers deputed by me:




"I was surprised, on my arrival here with his majesty's royal commission

as governor of this his province, to find that invasions have been lately

made on the inhabitants of this colony, and much blood shed by Indians,

supposed to be those of Minisink or Pompton, who have resided within this

colony, and have sometime since withdrawn themselves; and as I have no

knowledge of any reason they, or any of them, have, for being

discontented, or offering violence to the inhabitants of his majesty's

colony under my government; and no public complaint have been made by the

Indians of Minisink or Pompton, formerly inhabitants of this colony, at

any of the conferences held between the commissioners of New-Jersey, and

the Indian inhabitants of the same; to prevent any further hostilities, I

hereby send you this power, to go to the Indians of Minisink and Pompton,

formerly inhabitants of this colony; and in my name, to desire them to

desist from hostilities, and kindly to invite them to a conference with

this colony; and to assure them they shall be received in the most

friendly manner, and every endeavour shall be used to establish and

confirm a friendship between the subjects of our great king George, our

common father, and them, as a thing of the greatest use. You are to

enforce the natural affection between us and them, and how much it is for

their interest to be at peace with a people, who have the means of making

them happy and easy, and have, by the blessing of providence, provisions,

and every necessary of life in plenty, sufficient to supply their friends

in distress.


"As I have named a time, most convenient for them to be down here, it

would give me pleasure to see them then: But if unavoidable accidents

should put it out of their power to attend at that time; I have left the

time and place to themselves, so that it be in my government; and that

they come by Fort Allen, and enter New-Jersey, below the falls at Trenton,

and send an account of their arrival, that I may appoint persons to

receive and conduct them to me. I prescribe this path, because the people

above, who have lost their friends and relations, are so inflamed, as to

render it unsafe for them to enter this colony above Trenton.


"If you cannot go to the places of residence of the Minisink and Pompton

Indians, you are (or in case of your death or absence, that Moses Tetamy

and Isaac Still are) empowered to employ two good and faithful messengers,

to find out the chief place of the residence of these Indians, and to

deliver to them the message from me, with the belt and four strings of

wampum, and the safe conduct and flag given you herewith; and you are

desired to report to me, your proceedings herein, with all convenient

speed. Given under my hand and seal at arms, the 25th day of June, in the

thirty-second year of his majesty's reign. (L. S.) "By his excellency

Francis Bernard, Esq; captain general governor and commander in chief of

the colony of New-Jersey, &c."


"Brethren, the Minisink, or Munsy Indians, and those of Pompton:


"It is with great pain I am to tell you, that some Indians have invaded

our province on the upper parts of the Delaware, and shed much blood, and

that you are suspected to be concerned in it. A string.


"Brethren, if you have been instigated to this by the false suggestions of

our enemies, the French, we pity you; for these proceedings, if not

immediately prevented, must cause a discord between us, which though it

may be greatly hurtful to our people, must in the end entirely ruin yours.

A string.


"Brethren, the throne of the great king is founded on justice, and

therefore if you had received any injury from any of his people living

within our province, you should have made your complaints to me, who

am ordered to do justice to all men, and I would have heard you with

open ears, and given you full satisfaction. A string.


"Brethren, if therefore you have any anger boiling in your breasts, I, by

this belt, invite you to Burlington, in five weeks, at which time our

great council will be together; there to unburthen your minds, and root

out of your hearts the seeds of enmity, before they take too deep a root.

And I will kindle a council fire, and bury all the blood, that has stain'd

our ground, deep in the earth, and make a new chain of peace, that may

bind us and our children, and you and your children, in everlasting bonds

of love, that we may live together as brethren, under the protection of

the great king, our common father. A belt.


"Brethren, if these words shall please you, and you should choose that we

should be your friends rather than your enemies, let all hostilities

immediately cease, and receive this passport, and go to fort Allen; from

whence you shall be conducted to Bristol, where you will find deputies,

who will take you by the hand and lead you to me at Burlington: But if the

time and place I have mentioned, be inconvenient to you, I shall be ready

to receive you in this government when you can more agreeably to

yourselves, attend. A string.


At a conference held at Burlington, on monday, August 7, 1758.


PRESENT: His excellency Francis Bernard, Esq; governor. The honourable

James Hude, Andrew Johnston, Peter Kemble, Richard Saltar, Lewis M.

Ashfield, Samuel Woodruff, esquires, of his majesty's council; Charles

Read, John Stevens, William Foster, Esqrs, commissioners for Indian

affairs. Indians: Otawopass, or Benjamin, Coallins, or Goatshank,

messengers from the Minisink or Munsey Indians; Apewyet, or John Hudson, a

Cayugan; Samuel, a Delaware Indian; messengers from the Mingoians;

Taudakass, a Delaware Indian, who came with the Munsey Indians. John

Pumpshire, interpreter. Moses Totamy, Stephen Calvin, assistants.


His excellency sat, holding four strings of wampum in his hand, and spoke

to them as follows:




"As you are come from a long journey, through a wood full of briars: with

this string I anoint your feet, and take away their soreness: With this

string I wipe the sweat from your bodies: With this string I cleanse your

eyes, ears and mouth, that you may see, hear and speak, clearly; and I

particularly anoint your throat, that every word you say may have a free

passage from your heart: And with this string I bid you heartily welcome.'

Then delivered all the four strings.


"His excellency then informed them, that he should be ready to hear what

they had to say, in answer to the message he had sent to their chiefs, as

soon as would be convenient to them; when they informed him, they would be

ready in the afternoon: And thanked his excellency, for using the customs

of their fathers, in bidding them welcome."


Monday afternoon.


PRESENT: As in the morning. The Indians being informed, that the governor

was ready to hear them, Benjamin, on behalf of the Munsey Indians, holding

a belt in his hand, spoke sitting, not being allowed to stand 'till the

Mingoian had spoke.




"At first when your messengers came to us at Assinske, twenty seven days

since, our ancient people were glad to hear them, and our young men, women

and children rejoiced at the tidings. We know you are great and strong,

and we took it kindly. All our friends and relations were in sorrow, and

pitied the condition of the women and of the children, who are growing up.

The kind words of our brethren the English, we sent to our uncles the

Mingoians; and one of them is come down here to the place of our meeting,

to be a witness of what passes between us."


Then John Hudson, the Cayugan, abovementioned, stood up, and spoke as





"In confirmation of what has been said to you, I, who am the Mingoian, am,

by this belt, to inform you, that the Munseys are women, and cannot hold

treaties for themselves; therefore I am sent to inform you, that the

invitation you gave the Munseys, is agreeable to us; and we have taken

hold of your belt; and I desire you may write down my attending here; tho'

while I am here, I left my family in danger of being cut off by our

enemies the French.


"Further, brother, I have told you your belt was agreeable, and received

by us as an earnest of your friendship: But tho' we are glad of this

opportunity of speaking with you, yet I am to inform you, that it is not

agreeable to our chief men and counsellors, to have a new council-fire

kindled, or the old one removed to this side of the river, from

Pennsylvania, where it hath always been kept burning; the reason is this,

we know the strength of the water, and that when the wind and tide is

strong, it roars, that our people cannot hear: so that it is proper we

should have the council-fire on the other side of the river nearer to us.


"Brother, I think this is a good reason why it should be so: For, though

we should speak loud, the distant nations will not hear us, if the roaring

waters are between us and them. We therefore hope, as the council-fire is

kindled, and kept burning in the forks of Delaware, by the desire of all

our nations we shall see our brother the governor there.


"Brother, we attend to the words we have heard from you: You say you are a

man of strength, and we believe you are. I am a man as well as you: I know

of no nation stronger than you; and our chief men and old councellers are

willing to meet you at the forks of Delaware, and to confirm our alliance,

and brighten the chain of friendship more clear than it has heretofore

been. This belt confirms what I have said."


He then delivered the governor a belt, on one side of which are three

figures of men in black wampum, representing the Shawanese, Delawares, and

Mingoians, living on the Ohio; on the other side, four figures

representing the united councils of the six nations, in their own country:

By their being now joined in this belt, he declared it expressed their

union. That the western Indians having consulted their uncles, now joined

in sending it, in pursuance of a belt of invitation sent them above a year

since, by George Croghan, on behalf of the English.


Then Benjamin, on behalf of the Munsies, stood up, and said:




"Our ancient people, and chief men, are glad to hear of the kind

disposition of the English. We believe you are wise and strong; and for

the good of our wives and children, for whose protection we are concerned,

that they may have some good and lasting settlement made for them to the

latest posterity, in order to obtain it, we should be glad of the

opportunity, to see all our brethren the English together. Our chief

men, and old councellors, are making ready to come to the council-fire,

in order to settle all matters which have been the cause of uneasiness

between us. We believe your professions are sincere, and that you will

agree upon what is most for the good of both you and us; and we shall be

ready to be advised by you, as we think you are wise. We are glad to

have an opportunity of conversing with you, without interruption, tho'

the sun is low: But we hope our and your ancient and wise men, will

have the happiness of consulting freely together, for the good of one

another, before it be dark; and that we shall meet one another with

sincerity and truth, as we expect the blessing from above to attend us



"And I am directed to inform you, that the Indian nations will be

next full moon after this, at the forks of Delaware, and will send the

governor word before hand, of the particular day they will be there, and

of their nations and numbers: And so you may make it known to whom

you think proper, that they may be present at our meeting.


"There are two nations besides the Munseys, parties to this message: The

Senecas, whose chief man is Tageeskata, and lives at Mahahensink; the

Cayugas, whose chief man is Eshakanata. The chief man of the Munseys, is



Tuesday, August 8, 1758.


PRESENT: His excellency the governor; the gentlemen of the council; the

commissioners for Indian affairs; the Indians, and the interpreters; as

yesterday. His excellency delivered the following answer to what the

Indians said yesterday:




"I am glad to hear, that our offers of peace and amity have been well

received by your people, and that they are disposed to brighten the chain

that heretofore had held us together, and to restore that brotherhood

that had for many years subsisted between us. Of late a great darkness

hath overshadowed the land, but we hope, that the sun is up that will

disperse the clouds that have hindred us from seeing one another, and

make all our future days bright and pleasant.


"We agree with you, that it would be best for us all to meet at the great-

council-fire that is kindled on the forks of Delaware: It is on many

accounts proper; and the particular circumstances of this province, make

it most agreeable to us. We differ from the neighbouring provinces in many

things: We have bounds set to our people, beyond which they neither nor

desire to pass; they are content with the cultivation of their lands, and

seek not for extraordinary gains, by following trade out of their own

country. As we have had little intercourse with your people, we can have

little cause of contention with them: The encroachments of unbounded

settlers, and the tricks of unfair traders, cannot be charged on us. All

we have to do, is to offer your people our friendship; which, if you will

sincerely and heartily accept of it, shall endure to you and your

children, as long as the sun shall shine, or the river on whose banks we

meet shall flow.


"Brethren, I speak the words of justice and benevolence, and not of fear.

It is well known to many of you, that as our people are industrious and

hardy, they are also bold and resolute: If they are attacked, they give

shot for shot, and blow for blow. But we should be sorry that this their

warlike spirit, should be turned again you our antient friends and

brethren: No; let it be exerted against the French, who are the common

enemies of us, of you, and of all people that would be free and



"Brethren, what I speak to you, I speak to those that sent you; and say to

our brethren, that we are honest and sincere in our professions to them;

and hope they will be so in what they profess to us. But as we have been

struck, without having injured any one, we shall expect that they will

give us a proof of their good intentions towards us, by bringing with them

all the prisoners that have been taken from us. Those among you, who are

husbands and fathers can best tell what our people must feel, who have had

their wives and children torn from them. We also expect, that until we

shall all meet at the great council fire, and these our mutual offers of

peace and friendship shall be brought to maturity, by a solemn and publick

treaty, you will not suffer your own people to commit hostilities against

us, nor any others to pass by you, without giving us early notice, to

prepare ourselves against them.


"Brethren, the great God, whom we serve, and who protects us, and gives us

all the blessings of life which we enjoy, hath commanded us to be just and

benevolent to all mankind. We are desirous to be so; and if we can be

assured, that your people will live on terms of friendship with us, the

lowest person among you shall receive no hurt from our people, that we can

prevent or redress. Of this I will give your people further assurance,

when we meet at the council fire: In the mean time, I confirm what I have

said by these belts." His excellency then delivered one belt to John

Hudson, the Cayugan, and one to Benjamin, the Munsey.


The two foregoing treaties, opened the way for another to be held the

October following, at Easton, in Pennsylvania; so much of this as concerns

the purchase of the Indian claims to the province of New-Jersey, were as



At a conference held at the town of Easton, on the eighth day of October,



PRESENT: The honourable William Denny, Esq; lieut. governor. Lawrence

Growdon, William Logan, Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew,

John Mifflin, esquires, members of the governor's council. Isaac Norris,

Joseph Fox, Joseph Galloway, John Hughes, Daniel Roberdeau, Amos

Strickland, esqrs., committee of the house of representatives. Charles

Read, Jacob Spicer, esquires, commissioners for Indian affairs, in the

province of New-Jersey. A number of magistrates and freeholders of this

and the neighbouring province, and of the citizens of the city of

Philadelphia, chiefly of the people called Quakers. George Croghan,

esquire, deputy agent for Indian affairs under Sir William Johnson.


Indians of several nations, viz.


Mohawks: Nichas, or Karaghtadie, with one woman and two boys. (In all 4)


Senecas: Tagashata, alias Takeaghsodo, alias Sigachsadon, chief man, with 7

other chiefs, 37 other men, 28 women and children. (In all 83)


Onondagas: Assaradonguas, with 9 men, 9 women and children. (In all 19)


Oneidos: Segughsonyout, alias Thomas King, Anagaraghiry, Assany quon, with

3 warrior captains, 6 warriors, and 33 women and children.




Cayugas: Tokaaio, with 8 men, 11 women and children. (20)


Tuscaroras: Nichaquantaquoah, alias Jonathan with 5 men, 12 women, and 2

children. (20)


Nanticokes: Robert White, alias Wolahocumy, Pashdomokas, alias Charles,

with 16 men, 20 women, and 18 children. (56)


Conoys: Kanakt, alias Last Night, with 9 men, 10 women, and 1 child. (21)


Tutelos: Cakanonekoanos, alias Big Arm, Asswagarat, with 6 men and 3 women.




Chogknots: Ten men, 20 women and children. (30)


Chihohockies: alias Delawares, and Unamies: Teedyuscung, with divers men,

women and children. (60)


Munsies or Minisinks: Egotchowen, with sundry men, women and children. (35)


Mawhickons: Abraham, or Mammatuckan,with several men, women, and

children. (56)


Wawpings or Pomptons: Nimham, Aquaywochtu, with sundry men, women, and

children. (47)


In all 507


Conrad Weiser, Esq; provincial Interpreter. Captain Henry Montour,

interpreter in Six Nation and Delaware languages. Stephen Calvin, Isaac

Stille, Moses Tetamy, Delaware Indians, interpreters in the Delaware



At a conference held at Easton with the Indians on the 11th of October,

1758. P.M.


PRESENT: Governor Denny, with his council, and the several Pennsylvania

gentlemen, as before. The Indians, &c. as before. His excellency Francis

Bernard, Esq; captain general and governor in chief of his majesty's

province of New-Jersey. The honourable Andrew Johnston, Charles Read, John

Stevens, Jacob Spicer, William Foster, Esqrs, commissioners of New-Jersey,

for Indian affairs.


Tagashata, the Seneca chief, intending to speak first, on behalf of the

Indians, had laid some belts and strings in order on the table.


As soon as the company sat down, Teedyuscung holding out a string, said he

had something to deliver, and desired he might be heard first of all. Mr.

Croghan requested to know, if what he was going to say was the result of

the Delaware council, and if it was their desire it should be spoke first;

but no answer was given, him as to this.


Governor Bernard signifying his desire to bid the Indians welcome, and just

mention to them the business he came upon, it was agreed he should speak

first; which he did as follows:




"I am glad to see so many of you met together, to cultivate peace with

your brethren and old friends the English. I heartily bid you welcome, and

with that the good work for which you are now assembled, may prosper in

your hands, and have that success, which your wise men, and all that wish

you well, must desire as a thing much to your advantage.


"The situation of the province over which I preside, and the disposition

of its people, have hitherto afforded very little occasion for treaties

with the neighbouring Indians; but having some months ago sent a message

to the Minisinks, I received a message from our brethren the Senecas and

Cayugas, wherein they take upon them to answer my message to the

Minisinks, and desire that I would meet them at the council fire burning

at this place.


"It is not usual for the king's governors to go out of their provinces to

attend treaties; but I am glad to have an opportunity of shewing my good

disposition to establish peace and friendship with my neighbours, and

therefore I have waved all form, and am come here according to the

invitation I received at Burlington.


"To you, therefore, our brethren the Senecas and Cayugas, and your nephews

the Minisinks, I now speak, and desire that you would take into your most

serious consideration, my message to the Minisinks, your message to me,

and my answer thereto, and let me know what we are to expect from you.


"What is past we are willing to forget; but I must remind you, that if you

are disposed to be our friends for the future, you should give us that

proof of your sincerity, which I have desired in my answer to your

message, and return us the captives that have been taken out of our

province, and are now within your power: This should be one of the first

steps, and will be the best that can be taken towards restoring and

confirming that brotherly love and friendship between us; which, I am

convinced, will be for the mutual benefit of all parties."


This was interpreted in the six nations language, by Mr. Weiser, and in the

Delaware, by Mr. Stephen Calvin, the Indian school-master in West-Jersey.


Then Teedyuscung spoke:




"I desire all of you who are present will give ear to me. As you, my

brethren, desired me to call all the nations who live back; I have done

so. Now if you have any thing to say to them, or they to you, you must

sit and talk together.


"Brethren, I sit by, only to hear and see what you say to one another; for

I have said what I have to say, to the governor of Pennsylvania, who sits

here; he knows what has passed between us. I have made known to him the

reasons why I struck him. Now I and the governor have made up these

differences between him and me; and I think we have done it as far as we

can for our future peace." A string.


The above speech was interpreted in the six nation language. Tagashata then

rose up, and spoke:


"Brethren, the governors, and your councils,


"It has pleased the most high, that we meet together here with chearful

countenances, and a good deal of satisfaction: And as publick business

requires great consideration, and the day is almost spent, I choose to

speak early tomorrow morning."


The governors answered, that they should be glad to give all the dispatch

possible to this good work they were engaged in, and desired the chiefs

would fix the time of meeting; but they declined it, saying, "They were

unacquainted with hours, but would give notice when they were ready."


At a conference held at Easton, on the 12th of October, 1758.


PRESENT: The governors; the gentlemen of their councils, and others, as



Tagashata, the Seneca chief, taking the strings and belt of wampum, which

governor Bernard gave yesterday, repeated according to the Indian custom,

the particulars of his speech, and then added:




"We approve of every article mentioned to us yesterday, by the governor of

Jersey; all that he said is very good: We look upon his message to us, as

a commission and request from him, that we should bring matters to a good

conclusion with our cousins the Minisinks. They themselves sent for us to

do the same thing, on their behalf; and at their request we came here,

have taken it in hand, and will use our utmost endeavours to bring about

the good work which governor Bernard desires, and do not doubt but it will

be done to his entire satisfaction.


"Brethren, I now speak at the request of Teedyuscung, and our nephews the

Delawares, living at Wyomink, and on the waters of the river Susquehannah.


"Brethren, we now remove the hatchets out of your heads, that was struck

into it by our cousins the Delawares: It was a French hatchet that they

unfortunately made use of; by the instigation of the French: We take it

out of your heads, and bury it under ground, where it shall always rest

and never be taken up again. Our cousins the Delawares, have assured us,

they will never think of war against their Brethren the English any more,

but employ their thoughts about peace, and cultivating friendship with

them, and never suffer enmity against them to enter into their minds



"The Delawares desired us to say this for them by this belt." A belt.


"Brethren, our nephews the Minisink Indians and three other different

tribes of that nation, have, at last, listened to us, and taken our

advice, and laid down the hatchet they had taken up against their brethren

the English. They told us they had received it from the French, but had

already laid it down, and would return it to them again.


"They assured us, they would never use it any more against you, but would

follow our advice; and entreated us to use our utmost endeavours to

reconcile them to you their brethren, declaring they were very sorry for

what they had done, and desired it might be forgotten, and they would

forever cultivate a good friendship with you. These declarations were made

by the principal warriors of four tribes of the Minisink Indians, at

giving us this belt." A belt.


Then taking eight strings of black wampum, he proceeded:




"We let you know, that we have not only brought about this union with our

nephews on the waters of the river Susquehannah, but we also have sent

messages to our nephews the Delawares and Minisinks, and to those likewise

of our own nations who are on the Ohio, under the influence of the French.

We have told all those, that they must lay down the French hatchet, and be

reconciled to their brethren the English, and never more employ it against

them. And we hope they will take our advice. We the Mohawks, Senecas, and

Onondagas, deliver this string of wampum, to remove the hatchet out of

your heads, that has been struck into them by the Ohio Indians; in order

to lay a foundation for peace."


Eight strings of black wampum.


Tagashata sat down, and then the Cayuga chief; Tokaaio, arose, and said:




"I speak in behalf of the younger nations, part of; and confederated with

the Six Nations, viz. the Cayugas, Oneidas, Tuscaroras, Tutaloes,

Nanticokes, and Conoys.


"A road has been made from our country to this council fire, that we might

treat about friendship; and as we came down the road, we saw, that by some

misfortune or other, blood has lately been spilt on it. By these strings

we make the road wider and clearer; we take the blood away out of it, and

likewise out of the council chamber, which may have been stained; we wash

it all away, and desire it may not be seen any more; and we take the

hatchet out of your heads." Gave three strings.


"Brethren, the governors, and all the English, I now confine myself to the

Cayugas, my own nation.


"I will hide nothing from you, because we have promised to speak to each

other from the bottom of our hearts.


"The French, like a thief in the night, have stolen a way some of our

young men, and misled them; and they have been concerned in doing mischief

against our brethren the English.


"We did not know it when it happened, but we discovered it since. The

chiefs of our nation held their young men fast, and would not suffer them

to go out of their sight; but the French came and stole them away from us,

and corrupted them to do mischief: We are sorry for it; we ask pardon for

them, and hope you will forgive them: We promise they shall do so no more:

And now, by this belt, we take out of your heads the hatchet with which

they struck you." A belt of ten rows.


He added, he had found out, "That some of their young men had been

concerned in striking the English four times."


At a conference with the Indians, on the 16th of October, 1758.


PRESENT: The governors and gentlemen of their council, &c.: Governor

Bernard spoke:


"Brethren of all the confederated nations,


"As you proposed your questions concerning Teedyuscung separately, I think

proper to give you a separate answer thereto.


"I know not who made Teedyuscung so great a man; nor do I know that he is

any greater than a chief of the Delaware Indians settled at Wyomink; The

title of king could not be given him by an English governor; for we know

very well, that there is no such person among the Indians, as what we call

a king. And if we call him so we mean no more than a sachem, or chief. I

observe in his treaties which he has held with the governor of

Pennsylvania, [which I have perused since our last meeting] that he says

he was a woman, 'till you made him a man, by putting a tomhawk into his

hand; and through all of those treaties, especially in the last, held at

this town, he calls you his uncles, and professes that he is dependent on

you; and I know not that any thing has since happened to alter his

relation to you. I therefore consider him still to be your nephew.


"Brethren, I am obliged to you for your kind promises, to return the

captives which have been taken from us. I hope you will not only do so,

but will also engage such of our allies and nephews, as have taken

captives from us, to do the same. That you may be mindful, of this, I

give you this belt." A belt.


After the governor had done speaking, and their answers were interpreted in

the united nations and Delaware languages, the Indian chiefs were asked,

if they had any thing more to say. On which Tagashata arose, and made a

speech to his cousins the Delaware and Minisink Indians, directing his

discourse to Teedyuscung:




"You may remember all that passed at this council-fire. The governors who

sit there have put you in mind of what was agreed upon last year: They

both put you in mind of this promise, and desire you will perform it: You

have promised it, and must perform it. We your uncles promised to return

the prisoners. We your uncles, have promised to return all the English

prisoners among us, and therefore we expect that you our cousins and

nephews will do the same. As soon as you come home, we desire that you

will search carefully in your towns for all the prisoners among you that

have been taken out of every province, and cause them to be delivered up

to your brethren. You know that this is an article of this peace that was

made between you and your brethren: In confirmation of which you received

a large peace belt; of which belt we desire you will give an account, and

let us know what is become of it, and how far you have proceeded in it." A



After this was interpreted in the Delaware language, it was observed, that

there were no Minisink Indians present; the governors therefore desired,

that Mr. Peters and Mr. Read would procure a meeting of the chiefs of the

united nations, Delawares and Minisinks, and cause the speech of Tagashata

to be interpreted to the Minisinks in presence of their uncles.


Robert White, the Nanticoke chief; arose and said, he was going to speak in

behalf of seven nations, and directing his discourse to the governors, he

delivered himself in the English language as follows:




"It is now more than two years since we heard of our cousins the Delawares

taking up the hatchet against the English. At the first, Sir William

Johnston sent a message to the head nations, and when they received it,

they sent to us at Otsaningo; telling us, that as we lived close by our

cousins, they desired we would invite them to meet at our town, and

accordingly we invited them, and they came to a great meeting at our town

of Otsaningo. We then gave our cousius a belt of a fathom long, and twenty

five rows in breadth, and desired them to lay down the hatchet that they

had taken up against the English, and to be easy with them: And if they

would follow this advice, we told them, that they would live in peace,

until their heads were white with age; otherwise, it might not be so with



"Not hearing from our cousins for some time what they did in consequence

of this belt, we sent to them two other belts, one of sixteen and the

other of twelve rows, desiring them once more to be easy with their

brethren the English, and not to strike them any more: But still we

heard nothing from them; indeed sometime afterwards we understood the

Delawares should say, that the Indians at Otsaningo, had grey eyes, and

were like the English, and should be served as Englishmen; and we

thought we should have had the hatchet struck into our heads. We now

want to know what is become of these belts; may be they may be under

ground, or they may have swallowed them down their throats.


"Brethren, As our cousins have been loth to give any answer to these

belts, we now desire they may let us know, in public conference, what they

have done with them." A string.


17th October, 1758.


The indians were in council all day; and acquainted the governors, that

they could not be ready to meet before morning.


At a conference held at Easton the 18th October, 1758.


PRESENT: The governors, council, gentlemen and Indians, with the

interpreters: as aforesaid.


Mr. Peters and Mr. Read acquainted the governors: That at a meeting of the

chiefs of the older and younger nations, with the several tribes of the

Delaware and Minisink Indians, on Monday night, the speech of Tagashata,

delivered that morning in the publick conference, respecting the giving up

the prisoners, was interpreted in the Delaware language by Stephen Calvin;

and another belt, on the part of the governors, being joined to

Tagashata's belt, they were both delivered to the Delaware and Minisink

chiefs, to enforce the subject matter. When this was done, Tagashata spoke

to the Minisink chief Egotchowen, saying, "We were told by you, that you

had delivered up the English prisoners, and we believed you; but our

brethren have told us, that they were not delivered up, and therefore we

earnestly desire that they may be made easy on this article. You know,

cousins, that their hearts will always be in grief; 'till they see again

their flesh and blood: It is natural that they should be so: It would be

so with us, if it was our case. We desire you will be extremely careful to

perform this matter fully and soon; let there be perfect peace all over

the English country. And let it now be published, that we may all live in

peace, and with satisfaction, now and for ever. I told you, Egotchowen,

when you was in my town, to bring with you the English prisoners, and that

our brethren would expect it. I wish you had done it. But however, do it

now with all speed, and it will be well."


That Egotchowen answered, "It is true, I was at my uncles fire, and I

believe he desired me to bring the prisoners down; but I suppose it was

not interpreted to me; for I did not understand it clearly; but I now

understand it."


That the Minisink and Delaware Indians were desired to collect all their

warriors together, and give them their belts, and receive from them their

answer, it being necessary they should concur heartily in whatever should

be concluded. Then Nichas, the Mohawk chief acquainted the governors,

that, as councellors, they had finished, having nothing to propose at this

present meeting.


The warriors were to speak now, and Thomas King was appointed to deliver

their words; who thereupon arose, and began, with an exhortation as well

to all concerned in publick affairs, governors and their councils, and

Indian chiefs and their councils, as to the warriors of all nations, white

people and Indians, desiring all present to attend carefully to what was

going to be related, as matters of great consequence, which would serve to

regulate the conduct of the English and Indians to each other. He added,

that the relation going to be made had taken a great deal of trouble to

put it into order, and it was made on information given by the several

nations now present who were acquainted with the facts.




"We, the warriors, have waited some time, in hopes our councellors would

have taken this matter in hand; but as they have not done it, we have, at

their desire, undertaken it, and they have approved of every thing. I say,

the councellors of the five younger nations, as well as the three older

nations, have approved of what the warriors are going to relate; and take

notice, that the speech is not only the speech of all the warriors of the

elder and younger nations, but of our cousins the Delawares and Minisinks."


This was interpreted in the Delaware language; and Thomas King then

proceeded, directing his speech to the governors, and all the English upon

the continent:




"You have been inquisitive to know the cause of this war: You have often

inquired among us, but perhaps you did not find out the true cause of the

bitterness of our hearts, and may charge us wrongfully, and think that you

were struck without a cause by some of our own warriors, and by our

cousins. But if you look a little about you, you will find, that you gave

the first offence. For in time of profound peace, some of the Shawanese,

passing thro' South-Carolina, to go to war with their enemies, were taken

up and put into prison. The English knew they were going to war, and that

they used to do it every year: And yet, after they had persuaded them in a

friendly way into their houses, they were taken up and put into prison;

and one who was a head man of that nation lost his life, and the others

were severely used. This first raised ill-will in the minds of the

Shawanese, and as the French came a little after this happened to settle

on the Ohio, the Shawanese complained of it to them, and they made an

artful use of it, set them against the English, and gave them the hatchet.

Being resolved on revenge, they accepted it, and likewise spoke to their

grand-fathers the Delawares, saying, 'grand-fathers, are not your hearts

sore at our being used so ill, and at the loss of one of our chiefs? Will

you not join us in revenging his death?' So by degrees our young men were

brought over to act against you. On searching matters to the bottom, you

will find, that you in this manner, gave the first offence. This we

thought proper to let you know: It may be of service for the future. You

may he induced by this, to take better care in conducting your council-

business, so as to guard against these breaches of friendship; or as soon

as they happen, in corresponding immediately with one another, and with

the Indian nations, who are in any wise concerned on such occasion." Eight

strings of black wampum. "Brethren, this was the case of the Shawanese

that I have just now releated. Another of the like nature has since

happened to the Senecas, who have suffered in the same manner.


"About three years ago, eight Seneca warriors were returning from war

through Virginia, having seven prisoners and scalps with them. At a place

called Green Briar, they met with a party of soldiers, not less thau one

hundred and fifty, who kindly invited them to come to a certain store, and

said they would supply them with provisions: And accordingly they

travelled two days with them, in a friendly manner; and when they came to

the house, they took their arms from the Senecas: The head man cried out,

'Here is death, defend yourselves as well as you can;' which they did, and

two of them were killed on the spot; and one, a young boy, was taken

prisoner. This gave great offence, and the more so, as it was upon their

warriors road, and we were in perfect peace with our brethren. It provoked

us to such a degree, that we could not get over it.


"Brethren, you have justly demanded your prisoners; it is right; and we

have given you an answer: And therefore, as we think this young boy is

alive, and somewhere among you, we desire you will enquire for him. If he

be alive, return him; if you have swallow'd him down your throats, which

perhaps may be the case, let us know it, and we will be content. His name

is Squissatego." Six strings of white wampum.


"Brethren, we have one word more to mention of the same nature, and which

was the very cause why the Indians at Ohio left you.




"When we first heard of the French coming to Ohio, we immediately sent

word to the governors of Virginia and Pennsylvania; we desired them to

come, and likewise to supply us with such things as were proper for war,

intending to defend our lands, and hinder the French from taking the

possession of them: But these governors did not attend to our message;

perhaps they thought there was no foundation for our intelligence. The

French, however came, and become our neighbours; and you neither coming

yourselves, nor assisting us with warlike stores, our people of necessity

were obliged to trade with them, for what we wanted, as your traders had

left the country. The governor of Virginia took care to settle on our

lands for his own benefit; but when we wanted his assistance against the

French, he disregarded us." A belt.


"Brethren, at this treaty you justly demanded to see your flesh and blood.

We have pressed this on our cousins the Minisinks; and they by this

string, desired us to assure you, the governors, that they would make

strict search in their towns, and sincerely comply with your request, and

return all tile prisoners in their power." Two strings of black and white



Then directing his discourse to the governor of Jersey, he proceeded:


"Brother, the governor of Jersey,


"Our cousins the Minisinks, tell us, they were wronged out of a great deal

of land, and the English settling so fast, they were pushed back, and

could not tell what lands belonged to them. They say, if we have been

drunk, tell us so: We may have forgot what we sold; but we trust to you

the governor of Jersey, to take our cause in hand, and see that we have

justice done us. We say, that we have here and there tracts of land, that

have never been sold. You deal hardly with us; you claim all the wild

creatures, and will not let us come on your land to hunt after them. You

will not so much as let us peel a single tree: This is hard, and has given

us great offence. The cattle you raise are your own, but those which are

wild, are still ours, or should be common to both; for when we sold the

land, we did not propose to deprive ourselves of hunting the wild deer, or

using a stick of wood when we should have occasion. We desire the governor

to take this matter into his care, and see that justice be done in it."

Two strings of white wampum.


On the 19th October, 1758, at a private conference with the Indians, held

at Easton.


PRESENT: His excellency governor Bernard; The commissioners of New-Jersey;

The chiefs of the United Nations, and of the Minisinks and Wapings; George

Croghan, Esq; captain Henry Mountour and Stephen Calvin.


His excellency reciting the request of the United Nations to him, to do

justice to their nephews the Minisinks, concerning their claim to lands in

New Jersey, said, he would make diligent enquiry, what lands were

remaining unsold by them: But as that would be a work of time and expence,

he wished that some means could be found to give them satisfaction at this

meeting. The people of New-Jersey said, they had bought all, or the

greatest part of the Minisink lands; and the Minisinks said they had a

great deal of land unsold. He could not tell who was in the right; but

would suppose there were some lands unsold: And upon that supposition

would give, them some money by way of consideration for them, if they

would propose a reasonable sum; and desired they would advise about it,

and give an answer. The united nations said, it was a very kind proposal,

and recommended it to the consideration of the Minisinks.


At a private conference with the Indians, held at Easton, the 21st of

October, 1758.


PRESENT: His excellency governor Bernard, and the Jersey commissioners;

Thomas King, chief of the Oneidas, Tagashata, chief of the Senecas,

Takaaio, chief of the Cayugas, Egohohowen, chief of the Minisinks,

Aquaywochtu, chief of the Wapings, with other Indians of the several

nations; George Crochan, esq, deputy to sir William Johnson; captain Henry

Montour, his majesty's interpreter to the United Nations; Mr. Stephen

Calvin, interpreter of the Delaware and Minisink languages.


His excellency informed them, that he met them to agree about a

consideration for the uncertain claims of the Minisinks, Wapings and other

Indians, claimants of land in the northern parts of the province of New-

Jersey, and desired that it might be considered, that they knew not what

they sold, and he knew not what he bought; therefore the price ought not

to be large.


That they might propose a sum to him, or he would make an offer to them; or

it should be left to their uncles to consider of a price, as would please

them best. The united nations, by Thomas King, said, that they had no

claim to the lands of the Minisinks, or others their nephews, on the east

side of Delaware, and should therefore leave the fixing a price to them.


Then the Minisinks and Wapings withdrew to consult about it; and being

returned, Egohohowen, the Minisink chief, said, that they would choose the

governor should make an offer, as they might perhaps demand too much.

His excellency having cousulted the commissioners, offered them eight

hundred Spanish dollars for their claim in New-Jersey, as an extraordinary

price. The Minisinks said, they should be glad of the opinion of their

uncles in the matter.


The United Nations, by Thomas King, said, it was a fair and honourable

offer, and that, if it was their own case, they would chearfully accept of

it. But as there were a great many persons to share in the purchase money,

they recommended it to his excellency, to add two hundred dollars more;

and, if that was complied with, the report of it would be carried to all

the nations, and would be a great proof of the affection and generosity of

their brethren the English, on this occasion, and would be very agreeable

to them.


His excellency desired to know of the Minisinks, and other claimants, if

they approved of the proposal of their uncles; and they informed him, that

they did. The governor after consulting the commissioners, said, it was

more than he had intended to give; but as the United Nations had given

themselves the trouble of being mediators between them, he could not

refuse their recommendations, and was glad of the opportunity he had of

shewing his regard to the United Nations, and his benevolence to the

Minisink and other Indians, who had resided in the province where he

presided; and therefore complied with their request.


His excellency then desired them to remember, that this consideration

money, was to be in full for the claims of all the Minisink and Waping

Indians, and all others who claim any lands, in a map, which was laid

before them at the same time, which included all the lands from the line

between the provinces of New-York and New-Jersey, and down Hudson's river,

to the mouth of Rariton up the same to Alametung Falls, on the north

branch of Rariton river, thence on a streight line to Paoqualin Mountain,

where it joins on Delaware river, and thence up the Delaware to Cushytunk;

and recommended it to them to have respect to this in the division of the

consideration money.


Then Tagashata, the Seneca chief, arose, and addressing himself to the

Minisinks and other Indian claimants, spoke as follows:


"My nephews,


"I desire you will now give over all thoughts of your land, and that we

may hear no more complaints about it.


"Now you must remember the friendship between you and your brother, and

transmit to your children, and make them acquainted with the transactions

of this day. I recommended this to you, not from my lips only, but from

the bottom of my heart: I hope it will also make a deep impression, in

your hearts.


"It seems, as if your grandfathers had not told you of the treaties they

used to have with their brethren, but carried them with them to the grave.

But we hope you will not do so, but carefully inform your children of your

agreements. We have given you this advice, and hope you will follow it. We

also expect you will take care of your young men, that they do no more

mischief to their brethren the English."


Egohohowen, then addressed himself to the governor, and desired to be





"We are now thoroughly satisfied; and we still retain a friendship for our

brethren the English, and we desire, that if we should come into your

province, to see our old friends, and should have occasion for the bark of

a tree to cover a cabin, or a little refreshment, that we should not be

denied, but be treated as brethren: And that your people may not look on

the wild beasts of the forest, or fish of the waters, as their sole

property; but that we may be admitted to an equal use of them."


The governor answered, that, as soon as he got home, he should issue a

proclamation, to notify to the people of his province, that he had made a

peace with them, and to order, that, for the future, they should be

treated as brethren, which he hoped would be done: But desired they would

not go into those parts, where they had lately committed hostilities,

'till the people's passions were cooled; for he could not be answerable

for his people's behaviour, whilst their losses were fresh upon their



The 21st of October.


PRESENT: All the confederate Chiefs: Teedyuscung; Nowalkeeka, alias Four

steps; Awehela, alias James Davis; Egohohowen, Munsey chief; Tapiscawen,

alias Samuel Davis; Philip Compass; Lappink; Moses Tetamy: Conrad Weiser,

Henry Montour, Isaac Stille, interpreters.


Governor Bernard, requesting the attention of the Indians, addressed them

as follows:


"Brethren of the united nations,


"By this string, you spoke on behalf of our brethren the Minisinks, and

said, That they were wronged in their lands; that the English settled so

fast, they were continually pushing them back; and when they asked for

their lands, they were told that they had sold their land, and had got

drunk and forgot it. If they had swallowed their lands, they must be

content; but they did not believe that they had swallowed all, but that

some was left. They desired, that I would enquire after their lands that

were left, and do them justice.


"Brethren, I am glad I have an opportunity, in the presence of so many

nations, to express the desire I have of doing justice to every one.

The throne of the great king is founded on justice: And I should not be a

faithful servant to him, if I neglected to give redress to all persons,

that have received injuries from the people, over whom the great king has

placed me.


"I have therefore had a conference with the Minisinks, in the presence of

some of their uncles; and have come to a full agreement with them, the

proceedings of which are now ready to be read to you.


"Brethren, I have another proof to give you of the uprightness and justice

of our province. We have come to an agreement with the Delawares, and

other Indians, for the uncertain claims they had on the southern parts of

our province. I hereby produce the deeds, that have been executed on this

occasion, that the subject of them may be explained to you, and be had in

perpetual remembrance by all the nations present: And I desire that you

may all remember, that, by these two agreements, the province of New-

Jersey is entirely freed and discharged from all Indian claims. In

confirmation of which I give you this belt." A



"Brother Teedyuscung, by this string you tell me, that, after the killing

the nine Indians near Esopus, you carried three belts to George Vreeland,

who undertook to give them to the governor, and you ask what is become of

those belts.


"Brother, I can only say, that I never heard of those belts before; nor do

I know, what governor George Vreeland undertook to carry those belts to.

The proper governor was the governor of New-York; for in his province was

this mischief committed. And probably the governor of New-York had these

belts; for I have heard that he issued a proclamation for apprehending the

perpetrators of this fact. This fact has been blamed by all good and wise

men; and I am glad it was not done by the people of my province. I will

acquaint the governor of New-York with what you have said upon this

occasion, and I will enquire after those belts, and give you an answer. A



Governor Denny, being obliged to return to Philadelphia, on urgent

business, took his leave of the Indians, saying:




"It gives me great pleasure that the business of this treaty has been

carried on with so much satisfaction.


"I am sorry, I am now to inform you, that I am obliged to leave you,

having received last night an express from general Forbes, who is now near

the Ohio. My business calls me to town; I shall therefore leave Mr. Logan

and Mr. Peters to transact the remainder of the business, and doubt not

but they will act to your satisfaction. I assure you of my affection for

you, and wish you all manner of happiness."


Teedyuscung arose, and desired to be heard on behalf of the Wapings, living

near Esopus, and produced a short broad belt of white wampum, having in the

center, two hearts of a reddish colour, and in figures 1745, wrote after

the following manner, "17 [two hearts] 45" The belt had a round circle

pendant, representing the sun: He then produced two certificates, one from

governor Clinton, and the other from governor Hardy, both which were much

in favour of the Waping Indians. He said the belt was given them by the

government of New-York, and represented their union, which was to last as

long as the sun should continue in the firmament.


Teedyuscung addressed governor Bernard, desiring by a string of wampum,

that he would extend his protection to the Wapings; and as their chief was

old and infirm, he requested the favour of a horse to carry him home;

which was readily granted.


Tagashata made the same request to governor Denny, which was likewise



The Six Nation chiefs consulted together, and in a little time, Nichas, in

their behalf, returned an answer to the speeches of the governors, laying

the belts and strings upon the table, in the order they were delivered,

and repeating distinctly what was said on each of them. At the end of

every article he returned thanks, and expressed the highest satisfaction,

particularly on the ratifying the peace, and the large belt given

thereupon, which he said should be sent to all the distant nations of

Indians, to whom it would be very agreeable; he likewise promised, that

every thing transacted in these conferences, which he again said had

afforded them great pleasure, should be laid before the great council at

Onondaga, whose answers should be carefully transmitted.


He thanked governor Bernard for making up all the differences between that

government and the Minisink Indians so much to their satisfaction.


He made an apology for the want of wampum, and the exchange of other

belts to give in confirmation of their performance of the several things

mentioned in the governors speeches, agreeable to Indian customs. And then

wished governor Denny a good journey.


At a conference with the Indians, held at Easton, on the 26th of October



PRESENT: His excellency governor Bernard, William Logan, Richard Peters,

Andrew Johnston, Charles Read, John Stevens, George Croghan, Conrad Weiser,

Charles Swaine, esquires., Major Ordnt, the sheriff of Northampton county,

John Watson, the chiefs of the United Nations, and of the other nations,

and the interpreters, as aforementioned.


Mr. Secretary Peters having observed to the confederate chiefs, that the

governors were by Tokaaio, charged with having omitted some things in their

answers, and desired to know what they were, Thomas King said, that in

regard to some things they had been since supplied, and recommended that

some other things should be more particularly taken notice of; than they

had been. Wherefore agreeable to this advice, the following speech was

spoke by the memhers of the Pennsylvania council, governor Bernard

assenting thereto:




"As we have now settled all differences, and confirmed the antient leagues

of amity, and brightened the chain of friendship; we now clean the blood

off your council seats, and put them in order, that when you hold councils

at home, you may sit in your seats with the same peace and tranquility as

you formerly used to do." A string consisting of a thousand grains of



"Brethren, with this string of wampum, we condole with you for the loss of

your wise men, and for the warriors that have been killed in these

troublesome times, and likewise for your women and children, and we cover

their graves decently agreeable to the custom of your fore-fathers." A

string of a thousand grains of wampum.


"Brethren, we disperse the dark clouds that have hung over our heads,

during these troubles, that we may see the sun clear, and look on each

other with the chearfulness our forefathers did." A string of a thousand

grains of wampum.


Then Mr. Peters and Mr. Weiser produced the confirmation deed, executed

by the chiefs of the United Nations: as before set forth, which the Indian

chiefs acknowledged to have been their voluntary act and deed, and that

they clearly understood the contents thereof; together with the limits

described in the draught annexed to it; and the same being handed from

Indian to Indian, all round the house, it was delivered to the

proprietor's agents.


After which the Indian chiefs produced the proprietary deed of release,

executed by Mr. Peters and Mr. Weiser, the proprietary's agents, who

acknowledged it to be their act and deed, in behalf of their constituents,

as well as their own, and re-delivered it to the Indians, together with

the belt.


His excellency governor Bernard produced the following deeds, executed by

five Indian attornies, appointed by a council of the Delaware nations, for

all the lands lying in New-Jersey, south of a line from Paoqualin

mountains at Delaware river, to the falls of Alamatung, on the north

branch of Rariton river, thence down that river to Sandy-Hook; dated the

12th of September last, with endorsements thereon, made by Teedyuscung,

Unwallacon and Tepascawen, signifying their agreement thereto, and

acknowledgment of their having received satisfaction thereon; witnessed by

three chiefs of the Six Nations, who in behalf of the Six Nations,

approved the sale, and also by several English witnesses. And another

deed, dated the 23d October instant, at Easton; from the chiefs of the

Munsies, Wapings, Opings, or Pomptons, sixteen in number, and including

all the remaining lands in New-Jersey, beginning at Cushytunk, and down

the division lines between New-Jersey and New-York, to the mouth of Tappan

creek at Hudson's river, and down the same to Sandy Hook, thence to the

mouth of Rariton, thence up that river to the falls of Alamatung, thence

on a strait line to Paoqualin mountains, where it joins on Delaware river,

thence up the river Delaware to Cushytunk; endorsed by Nimham, a chief of

the Opings or Pomptons, who was sick at the execution thereof; and appoved

by the Six Nations; which was testified by three of their chiefs, signing

as witnesses thereto: And governor Bernard desired, that all present might

take notice of the same, and remember that the Indian titles to all the

lands in New-Jersey, were conveyed by those two deeds.


Which being interpreted in the Mingo and Delaware languages; his

excellency addressed the Indians, as follows:




"I am very glad this good work has been so happily finished. I came among

you wholly unacquainted with your forms, and therefore if I have omitted

any ceremonies, you will readily excuse me. But in whatever I have been

deficient, I am sure, I have not wanted a good heart towards you.


"The circumstances of our province, have hitherto rendered us unable to

give you any great proofs of our regard for you. But I shall endeavour to

persuade my people, to do you good service for the future, by opening a

communication with you; which if rightly managed, will be much to the

advantage of both people. And for my own part, I shall be always ready to

do you justice; and desire that whenever you have cause of complaint

against my people, you will take care to signify it to me." A string.


The Five Nation chiefs, laid all the belts and strings on the table, that

were delivered at this and the last conference. Tokaaio, the Cayuga chief;

desired the governor and all present, would take notice of what Thomas

King was going to say, on behalf of the United Nations.


On which Thomas King arose, and taking up the first belt which was given

by Teedyuscung, when he requested a deed for the Wioming lands, he

addressed the Delawares, (Teedyuscung not being present) as follows:




"By this belt, Teedynscung desired us to make you the owners of the lands

at Wioming, Shamokin, and other places on the Susquehannah river; in

answer to which, we who are present say, That we have no power to convey

lands to any one; but we will take your request to the great-council-fire,

for their sentiments, as we never sell or convey any land, 'till it be

agreed on at the great council of the United Nations. In the mean time,

you may make use of these ]ands, in conjunction with our people, and all

the rest of our relations, the Indians of the different nations in our



Which being interpreted into Delaware, the string of wampum was given to

Moses Tetamy and James Davis, to be delivered to Teedyuscung, as he was not



Then taking up each belt and string in the order it was delivered in this,

and the last conference, he proceeded to repeat distinctly, what had been

said under each article, returning thanks for all those good speeches,

which he said, were extreamly agreeable. He made particular mention of the

large peace belt, saying, "The nations are greatly pleased, that all the

ancient treaties made here, at Albany, and elsewhere, are renewed, as well

as that the old council-fire at Philadelphia, is kindled again, and a good

road made to it, that may be travelled without any danger: These in

particular, as well as every other matter transacted at these conferences,

we will make known to our own nations, and to every other in friendship

and alliance with us, and we are sure they will be very well received."

Then addressing governor Bernard, he thanked him for his farewell speech,

saying, "It was a very kind one, and that they were much pleased with his

having been present, and given his assistance at this treaty, which had

given them an opportunity of gaining an acquaintance with him, which they

would ever remember with pleasure. After a pause, he desired to be excused

for mentioning some things that had been omitted by the governors and

their councils.


"They have forgot to bring with them ammunition, of which we always used

to receive a sufficient quantity, not only to serve us in our journey, but

to support us in our hunting season, that we might be enabled to make

provision for our families. They have given us gunlocks without guns,

which are of no manner of use to us; and therefore this must have surely

been forgot; as it is impossible for Indians to subsist without guns,

powder and lead, of which we have received none.


"As many of us are old and infirm, we desire our brethren, will be so good

as to furnish us with a number of waggons, to convey such of us, as are

not able to walk, and the goods you have been pleased to give us, as far

as Wioming, where we have left our canoes, and then we will discharge the

waggons, and they may come back again.


"We further desire a supply of provisions may be put into the waggons,

enough to serve us 'till we get to our respective habitations." He then

took up the proprietary release, and returned thanks for it. He said,

"When the United Nations first made the request to sir William Johnson to

be transmitted to Onas, they had no doubt but Onas would comply with it,

having always found him ready to grant all their requests. With him we

have never had any difference; he has always settled our affairs without

giving us any trouble, and to our satisfaction. We heartily thank Onas;

this act confirms us in the good opinion we always had of him."


Then addressing himself to the Delawares, with a string of wampum, he

spoke as follows:


"This serves to put Teedyuscung in mind of his promises, to return the

prisoners: Remember, cousins, you have made this promise in our presence;

you did it indeed before, and you ought to have performed it: To tell

lies, does not become a great man: A great man always keeps his word, and

performs his promises. Cousins, you must not now fail to keep your word:

We are all now one people, and we must all be punctual in the performance

of our engagements."


This was interpreted into the Delaware language, and the string was given

to Moses Tetamy, to be delivered to Teedyuscung.


Then he said the United Nations had finished what they had to say. Some

wine and punch was called for, and mutual healths were drank, and the

conferences were concluded with great satisfaction.


In consequence of the expectations given the Indian inhabitants, the

commissioners, with the consent of the Indian attornies, purchased a tract

of upwards of 3000 acres, called Brotherton, situate in Burlington county,

in which is a cedar swamp and saw-mill, adjoining to many thousand acres

of poor uninhabited land, suitable for hunting, and convenient also for

fishing on the sea-coast; the deed was taken in the name of the governor

and commissioners, and their heirs, in trust for the use of the Indian

natives who have or do reside in tbis colony south of Rariton, and their

successors for ever, with a clause, providing that it shall not be in the

power of the Indians, their successors, or any of them, to lease or sell

any part thereof; and any person (Indians excepted) attempting to settle

there, to be removed by warrant from a justice of the peace; no timber to

to be cut but by the Indians, under penalty of forty shillings fine for

every tree. The Indians soon after the purchase, removed to the

settlement, and there remain to their satisfaction, having their usual

means of living very convenient; they were assisted by the government, in

their removing and buildings: There are about sixty persons seated here,

and twenty at Weekpink, on a tract formerly secured by an English right,

to the family of king Charles, an Indian sachem.


Some time after the treaty at Easton, fresh hostilities being commenced by

the back Indians, and approaching very near the frontiers of Jersey, it

was feared, notwithstanding these agreements, they would prove perfidious;

which occasioned a guard to be placed there: Part of the address of the

assembly to governor Franklin, in the spring, 1764, sets this and the

present state of Indian affairs, in a true light; and with that we

conclude the subject.


"In the original settlement of this province, great circumspection and

care was used to gain and preserve the friendship of the Indian natives;

their lands were from time to time, fairly and openly purchased, to their

general satisfaction: This conciliated their affection; and for a long

course of time, they were eminently serviceable to the new settlers; and

since the beginning of their hostilities, lest some among them should

think any part of our lands remained unpurchased, care was taken at the

treaty of Easton, 1758, to obtain for a valuable consideration, a general

release for all the lands in this province, such parts only excepted, as

were reserved for the use of those Indians that inclined to live under the

protection of this government; this was done, and the money paid in open

council, and their approbation universally expressed: Such therefore being

the circumstance of this province, with regard to the Indians, it became a

matter of astonishment to us, that any conduct of theirs should give

reason to fear their intentions respecting us; and whether they had

actually any design upon this province or not, their hostilities in the

neighbourhood of our frontier, and in one doubtful instance, over the

line, were inducements to place a frontier guard of two hundred men for

the winter last."


1 They had, to one of the messengers sent from Pennsylvania, complained of

the death of the sachem Weequehelah; but this was looked upon as meer

pretence to colour their attempts with the appearance of justice; as that

Indian was known to have been executed for actual murder, and to have had

a legal trial: The fact was, he was an Indian of great note and account

both among Christians and Indians, of the tribe that resided about South-

river, where he lived with a taste much above the common rank of Indians,

having an extensive farm, cattle, horses and negroes, and raised large

crops of wheat, and was so far English in his furniture as to have a house

well provided with feather beds, calico curtains, &c. He frequently dined

with governors and great men, and behaved well; but his neighbour, captain

John Leonard, having purchased a cedar swamp of other Indians, to which he

laid claim, and Leonard refusing to take it on his right, he resented it

highly, and threatened that he would shoot him; which he accordingly took

an opportunity of doing in the spring 1728, while Leonard was in the day

time walking in his garden or near his own house, at South-river aforesaid.


2 Vide vol. 2 of laws, p. 127.


3 The commissioners were, Andrew Johnston and Richard Salter, esquires, of

the council, and Charles Read, John Stevens, William Foster and Jacob

Spicer, esquires. The Indians were, Teedyescunk, king of tbe Delawares.

George Hopayock, from the Susquehanah. Crosswick Indians: Andrew Wooley,

George Wheelwright, Peepy, Joseph Cuish, William Loulax, Gabriel Mitop,

Zeb. Conchee, Bill News, John Pembolus. Mountain Indians: Moses Totamy,

Philip. Rariton Indian: Tom Evans. Ancocus Indians: Robert Kekott, Jacob

Mullis, Samuel Gosling. Indians from Cranbury: Thomas Store, Stephen

Calvin, John Pompshire, Benjamin Claus, Joseph Wooley, Josiah Store, Isaac

Still, James Calvin, Peter Calvin, Dirick Quaquay, Ebenezar Wooley, Sarah

Stores widow of Quaquahela. Southern Indians: Abraham Loques, Isaac

Swanelac. John Pompshire, interpreter.