King Charles the second, and duke of York's grants, whence lord Berkely

and Sir George Carteret, became seized of New-Jersey; The first

constitution of government under them; The settlement of Bergen,

Middletoun, Shrewsbury, and Elizabeth-Town; Philip Carteret appointed

governor of Jersey; The indian purchase of Elizabeth-Town, by the

settlers; and the first general Indian purchase by the proprietor, &c.


The right of the crown of England to these provinces, indisputably founded,

as before deduced, King Charles the second, did by letters patent, bearing

date the twentieth day of March, 1664, for the consideration therein

mentioned, grant unto James, duke of York, his heirs and assigns, "all

that part of the main land of New England beginning at a certain place,

called or known by the name of St. Croix near adjoining to New Scotland in

America, and from thence extending along the sea coast unto a certain

place called Pemaquie or Pemaquid, and so up the river thereof, to the

furthest head of the same, as it tendeth northward; and extending from

thence to the river of Kimbequin, and so upwards by the shortest course, to

the river Canada northwards; and also all that island or islands, commonly

called by the several name or names of Matowacks or Long-Island, situate

and being towards the west of Cape-Cod, and the narrow Higansetts,

abutting upon the land between the two rivers, there called or known by

the several names of Connecticut and Hudson's river; together also with

the said river called Hudson's river; and all the land from the west side

of Connecticut river, to the east side of Delaware bay; and also several

other islands and lands in the said letters patent mentioned; together

with the rivers, harbours, mines, minerals, quarries, woods, marshes,

waters, lakes, fishings, hawking, hunting and fowling, and all other

royalties, profits, commodities and heriditaments to the said several

islands, lands and premises, belonging or appertaining."


The duke of York being thus seized, did by his lease and deeds of lease and

release, bearing date the 23d, and 24th days of June, 1664, in

consideration of a "competent sum of money," grant and convey unto John

lord Berkely, baron of Stratton, one of the kings privy council; and Sir

George Carteret, of Saltrum, in the county of Devon, knight, and one of

the privy council,1 and their heirs and assigns forever; "all that tract

of land adjacent to New-England, and lying, and being to the westward of

Long-Island and Manhattas island; and bounded on the east part by the main

sea, and part by Hudson's river; and hath upon the west, Delaware bay or

river; and extendeth southward to the main ocean as far as Cape-May, at

the month of Delaware bay; and to the northward as far as the northernmost

branch of the said bay or river of Delaware; which is in 41 degrees and 40

minutes of latitude, and crosseth over thence in a straight line to

Hudson's river, in 41 degrees of latitude; which said tract of land is

hereafter to be called Nova-Caesaria or New-Jersey; and also all rivers,

mines, minerals, woods, fishings, hawkings, huntings, and fowlings, and

all other royalties, profits, commodities, and heriditaments whatsoever to

the said lands and premises, belonging or in any wise appeartaining, with

their and every of their appurtenances in as full and ample manner as the

same is granted unto the said duke of York, by the before recited letters



The Lord Berkeley, and Sir George Carteret, in consequence of this

conveyance, now sole proprietors of New-Jersey, for the better settlement

thereof, agreed upon certain constitutions of government; which were so

well relished, that the eastern parts of the province, were soon

considerably peopled.2 This was the first constitution of New-Jersey, and

it continued entire, 'till the province became divided in 1676. Sir George

Carteret, then the only proprietor of the eastern division, confirmd and

explained the concessions, with a few additions. The county of Bergen was

the first settled place, a great many dutch being already there, when the

province was surrendered, remained under the English government. A few

Danes were probably concerned in the original settlement of this county,

whence came Bergen, after the capital of Norway. The manner of originally

settling is singular, but small lots where their dwelling houses are, and

these contiguous in the town of Bergen: Their plantations which they

occupy for a livelihood, are at some distance; the reason of fixing thus,

is said to be through fear of the numerous Indians in the early times of

their settlement, about forty or fifty years before the surrender.3


It was in 1664, that John Bailey, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson, of

Jamaica, on Long-Island, purchased of certain Indian chiefs, inhabitants of

Staten-Island; a tract or tracts of land, on part of which the Town of

Elizabeth now stands; and for which (on their petition) governor Richard

Nicolls granted a deed or patent to John Baker of New-York, John Ogden, of

Northampton, John Bailey, and Luke Watson, and their associates; dated at

fort James, in New-York, the second of December.4 This was before lord

Berkely's and Sir George Carteret's title was known; and by this means,

this part of the province had some few very early settlements, whether

Middletown and Shrewsbury had not Dutch and English inhabitants before, we

are not authorized to say: About this time however, was a great resort of

industrious reputable farmers; the English inhabitants from the west end

of Long-Island, almost generally removed to settle hither; and most of

them fixed about Middletown, from whence by degrees, they extended their

settlements to Freehold and thereabouts.


To Shrewsbury there came many families from New-England: There were very

soon four towns in the province, viz. Elizabeth, Newark, Middletown, and

Shrewsbury; and these with the country round, were in a few years

plentifully inhabited, by the accession of the Scotch, of whom there came

a great many, such settlers as came from England, those of the Dutch that

remained, and those from the neighbouring colonies.


Lord Berkely and Sir George Carteret having agreed upon their concessions,

appointed Philip Carteret governor of New-Jersey, and gave him power with

the advice of the major part of the council, to grant lands to all such as

by the concessions were entitled thereto, and tho' there is no provision

in the concessions for bargaining with the Indians,5 Governor Carteret on

his arrival thought it prudent to purchase their rights: This was to be

done for sums inconsiderable, in comparison with the damage a neglect

might have occasioned.6 For though the Indians about the English

settlements, were not at this time considerable as to numbers, they were

strong in their alliances, and besides of themselves could easily annoy

the out plantations; and there having been before several considerable

skirmishes between the Dutch and them, in which some blood had been spilt,

their friendship on this consideration it was thought stood but ticklish:

Upon the whole, the governor so ordered it, that the comers were either to

purchase of the Indians themselves, or if the lands were before purchased,

they were to pay their proportions: The event answered his expectation,

for as the Indians parted with the lands to their own satisfaction, they

became of a jealous, shy people, serviceable good neighbours, and tbough

frequent reports of their coming to kill the white people, sometimes

disturbed their repose, no instance occurs of their hurting them,7 in

those early settlements. In the Dutch skirmishes with the Indians, it is

said the English from Long-Island, together with such as were settled

among the Dutch, used to join the latter in frequent excursions up the

rivers to annoy or figure among the Indians: There is a tradition, that in

one of those expeditions up a Jersey river, one of the company of more

curiosity or boldness than the rest, went at some distance in the country

to discover an Indian town, which at last he did, by coming upon it before

he was well aware of his situation; there were many seated quietly

together; at the instant he saw them, they saw him, he was surprized, but

quickly recollecting himself, took a paper out of his pocket, and with

that boldly went up, telling them it was proposals from the government at

York, and read at random such things as came into his head; by this

stratagem he got off unmolested, and discovering at York what he had seen,

told the government, if they would send a party against them he would be

their pilot: A party was accordingly sent, coming upon the Indians in the

night, some of them found means to get in to windward of their little town

and setting fire to it, burnt the whole down; their wigwams were built

close together, and made of flags, bushes, and other light combustible

matter, covered with the bark of trees, so that the fire burnt with

violence; the Indians notwithstanding their surprise, took to their bows

and arrows, and used them with dexterity and courage, 'till being

overpowered, several of them were destroyed.


That we may place traditional intelligence of this sort together, we will

here venture at one more little oceurrence of that kind; but with this

remark, that we pretend to no greater certainty in either, than what

arises from the probability of facts supported by established credit of

persons relating them, and the known hostilities at times subsisting

between the Dutch and Indians in their early settlement.


While New-York was in possession of the Dutch, about the time of the Indian

war in New-England, a Dutch ship coming from Amsterdam, was stranded on

Sandy Hook,8 but the passengers got on shore; among them was a young

Dutchman who had been sick most of the voyage; he was taken so bad after

landing, that he could not travel; and the other passengers being afraid

of the Indians, would not stay 'till he recovered, but made what haste

they could to New-Amsterdam; his wife however would not leave him, the

rest promised to send as soon as they arrived: They had not been long

gone, before a company of Indians coming down to the water side,

discovered them on the beach, and hastening to the spot, soon killed the

man, and cut and mangled the woman in such a manner that they left her for

dead. She had strength enough to crawl up to some old logs not far

distant, and getting into a hollow one, lived mostly in it for several

days, subsisting in part by eating the excrescences that grew from it; the

Indians had left some fire on the shore, which she kept together for

warmth: having remained in this manner for some time, an old Indian and a

young one coming down to the beach found her; they were soon in high

words, which she afterwards understood was a dispute; the former being for

keeping her alive, the other for dispatching: After they had debated the

point a while, the first hastily took her up, and tossing her upon his

shoulder, carried her to a place near where Middletown now stands, where

he dressed her wounds and soom cured her: After some time the Dutch at New-

Amsterdam hearing of a white woman among the Indians, concluded who it

must be, and some of them came to her relief; the old man her preserver,

gave her the choice either to go or stay; she chose the first: A while

after marrying to one Stout, they lived together at Middletown among other

Dutch inhabitants; the old Indian who saved her life, used frequently to

visit her; at one of his visits she observed him to be more pensive than

common, and setting down he gave three heavy sighs; after the last she

thought herself at liberty to ask him what was the matter? He told her he

had something to tell her in friendship, tho' at the risk of his own life,

which was, that the Indians were that night to kill all the whites, and

advised her to go off for New-Amsterdam; she asked him how she could get

off? He told her he had provided a canoe at a place which he named: Being

gone from her, she sent for her husband out of the field, and discovered

the matter to him, who not believing it, she told him the old man never

deceived her, and that she with her children would go; accordingly going to

the place appointed, they found the canoe and paddled off. When they were

gone, the husband began to consider the thing, and sending for five or six

of his neighbours, they set upon their guard: About midnight they heard

the dismal war-hoop; presently came up a company of Indians; they first

expostulated, and then told them, if they persisted in their bloody

design, they would sell their lives very dear. Their arguments prevailed,

the Indians desisted and entered into a league of peace, which was kept

without violation. From this woman, thus remarkably saved, with her scars

visible, through a long life is descended a numerous posterity of the name

of Stout now inhabiting New-Jersey: At that time there were supposed to be

about fifty families of white people and five hundred Indians inhabiting

those parts.


Governor Carteret did not arrive to his government of New-Jersey, 'till the

latter end of the summer 1665; 'till which time the province was under

Nicolls's jurisdiction: On the arrival of the former he summoned a

council, granted lands, and administered the government on the plan of the

general concessions and took up his residence at Elizabeth-Town to which

it is said he gave the name, after Elizabeth wife of Sir George Carteret:

With him came about thirty people; some of them servants: They brought

goods proper for the planting a new country, and the governor soon

afterwards sent persons into New-England, and other places, to publish the

proprietors concessions, and to invite people to settle there upon which

many soon came from thence: Some settled at Elizabeth-Town, others at

Woodbridge, Piscattaway and Newark: The ship that brought the governor,

having remained about six months returned to England, and the year after

made another voyage. Sundry other vessels were from time to time sent by

the proprietors with people and goods, to encourage the planting and

peopling their lands: Thus the province of East-New Jersey increased

settlement, and continued to grow 'till the Dutch invasion in 1673, when

they having got possession of the country, some stop was put to the

English government; but the treaty afterwards between king Charles the

second, and the States general at London 1673-4, put all general

difficulties of that kind out of dispute; the sixth article whereof is in

these words, "That whatever country, island, town, haven, castle, or

fortress, hath been, or shall be taken by either party from the other

since the beginning of the late unhappy war, whether in Europe or

elsewhere, and before the expiration of the times above limited for

hostility, shall be restored to the former owner in the same condition it

shall be in at the time of publishing this peace."


Tho' the inhabitants were at variance among themselves, there was also

pretty constantly a resort of settlers between the years 1665 and 1673,

and they increased fast afterwards. But the Elizabeth-Town purchasers and

others, setting up a right, differing in some respects from that of the

proprietors, and other incidents falling out, which, though some of them

inconsiderable, and others one would think might then easily have been

settled, yet nourished by a more vindictive spirit on all sides than was

immediately necessary, they occasioned much disturbance.9 Carteret going

for England in the summer, 1672, left Capt. John Berry his deputy. He

returned in 1674, and found the inhabitants more disposed to union among

themselves, and bringing with him the king's proclamation, and a fresh

commission and instructions from Sir George Carteret, he summoned the

people, and had them all published; which for a while had a good effect

towards restoring proprietary authority, and the publick peace: He

remained governor 'till his death in 1682. In his time the general

asemblies and supreme courts sat at Elizabeth-Town, and the councils

generally: Here the secretary's office, and most other publick offices

were held; here also most of the officers of the government then resided.


In September 1671, an extraordinary council was held at New-York; present,

Governor Lovelace, the mayor and secretary of New-York, Major Steenwick,

governor Philip Carteret, and Captain James Carteret of New-Jersey: The

occasion was this, William Tomm and Peter Alricks, had just arrived from

Delaware, with the particulars of the Indian murders mentioned before,

that two christians (Dutch men) had, as there related, been murdered by

some Indians at the island Matinicunk,10 on Delaware: Alricks being

present at the council, informed them, the nation of whom these murderers

were, consisted of about fifty or sixty persons, and that the mischiefs

committed on Delaware this seven years, were said to be done by them: That

the Indians their confederates (as it was supposed they would be if a war

should follow) were about a thousand persons, besides women and children:

That two of the saggamores of the nation of the murderers, promised their

best assistance, to bring them in, or, procure them to be nocked in the

head, if countenanced by the government; and that many other Indians he

met upon the road, much disallow'd of the murder, and were very sorry for

it, and offered their assistance against them. Alricks further related,

that it was proposed by the sachems, as the best scheme to set upon this

nation, to cause a kintecoy to be held; and that in the midst of their

mirth, one should be hired to knock them in the head; adding, as his own

opinion, that the best time to fall upon them was about the 25th October;

because after that their usual manner was to go a hunting, and then they

could not be easily found: But now the immediate danger was of their

destroying the corn and cattle of the christians, and that the murders

were owing to Tashiowycan, who having a sister dying, expressed great

grief for it, and said the Mannetta hath killed my sister, and I will go

kill the christans; and taking another with him, they together executed

the barbarous facts.


This information considered, the council concluded, that Thomas Lewis, then

bound with his sloop for New-Castle, should be stayed from his voyage, for

three or four days when Alricks and Henry Courturier, would be ready to go

with him; that in the mean time, general instructions should be drawn to

take along with them: That the Governor of New-Jersey, and Capt. James

Carteret, (then present) should expeditiously order a general assembly to

be called in that government; (according to their custom upon all emergent

occasions) to know the people's strength and readiness; and how far they

were willing to contribute towards the prosecution of a war against the

Indians. That a frequent correspondence be kept between the two

governments, and that nothing be done in this Indian War, without mutual

advice and consent of both the governors; unless upon extraordinary

opportunity, where advantage against the enemy might suddenly be taken,

before notice could be given.


These resolutions taken, the next step was to transmit instructions to

William Tomm, (he was either one of the commissaries appointed by Carre,

and the authority at New-Castle, or a kind of deputy under them, up

Delaware) that he might forecast how a war might be prosecuted to the best

advantage; and it requiring time to get things in order, all the frontier

scattering plantations, were immediately to thresh out or remove their

corn, and dispose their cattle, so as to receive the less damage by the

effects of the war: Next he was to order, that none on pain of death,

should presume to sell any powder, shot, or strong waters to the Indians;

and that in the mean time, the inhabitants were to carry (if such a thing

was practicable) a seeming complacency with the nation of whom were the

murderers, either by treaty or traffick, to prevent suspicion of the

designs on foot; but withall it was directed, that if they would either

deliver up the murderers, or their heads; the English were at liberty to

assure them of no disturbance.


Lovelace also wrote to Carre upon this occasion, to be vigilant in making

preparations for the war; and as directions could not be punctual, the

whole was left to his prudent management, with advice of his commissaries.

The next council held upon this occasion, was in November, at Elizabeth-

Town; present, the governors Lovelace and Carteret, and divers others.

Here the season was thought too far advanced, to begin the war; but the

magistrates were authorized to treat with the neighbouring Sasquehana

Indians, or others, to join together against the murderers, and such as

harboured them; and to promise a reward as they should think fit; provided

caution was used so as to create no sudden jealousy: But this proved

unnecessary; the Indians uneasy about the murder, were not averse to a

full revenge, as the event proved. In December, a parcel of them meeting

at Rambo's, sent for Tomm and others, and promised within six days to

bring in the murderers, dead or alive: Accordingly two Indians sent by the

sachems, to take them, coming to Tashowycan's wig-wam in the night; one of

them his particular friend; him he asked if he intended to kill him; he

answered no, but the sachem have ordered you to die: He demanded what his

brother said; being told they also said he must die, he then holding his

hands before his eyes, said kill me: Upon this the other Indian, not his

intimate, shot him im the breast: They took his body to Wickaco, and

afterwards hung it in chains at New-Castle: The English gave the sachems

for this, five matchcoats. The other murderer hearing the shot, ran naked

into the woods, and what came of him after, appears not. The Indians upon

this death, summoned many of their young men, and before the English, told

them, that now they saw a beginning of punishment, and all that did the

like should be so served. Thus ended an affair, which while these Indians

were a formidable body, looked discouraging.


The town of New-Castle, in the spring, 1672, was by the government at

York, made a corporation, to be governed by a bailiff and six assistants;

after the first year the four old to go out, and four others to be chosen:

The bailiff was president, with a double vote; the constable chosen by the

bench; they had power to try causes as far as ten pounds, without appeal:

The English laws were established in the town, and among the inhabitants

on both sides Delaware: The office of Schout was converted into a sheriff,

for the corporation and river, annually chosen; and they were to have free

trade without being obliged to make entry at New-York, as heretofore had

been the practice.


About this time happened a considerable disturbance at the Hoarkills: A

party from Maryland, headed by one Jones, made an incursion, and binding

the magistrates, and other inhabitants, carried off what plunder they

could; being joined by Daniel Brown, a planter at the Hoarkills; he was

sent to New-York, took his tryal and was convicted; but on promises of

amendment, and a small security for future good behaviour dismissed. With

respect to the Marylanders, Lovelace's letter to that governor, shows him

to have had some spirit, tho' his character in general was rather that of

an upright, but timid governor and good natured man: It is dated the 12th

of August, 1672:


"To Philip Calvert, Esq; governor of Maryland.




"I thought it had been impossible now in these portending boisterous

times, wherein all true hearted Englishmen, are buckling on their armour

to vindicate their honours, and to assert the imperial interest of his

sacred majesty's rights and dominions; that now without any just grounds,

either given or pretended, such horrid outrages should be committed on his

majesty's liege subjects, under the protection of his royal highness's

authority, as was exercised by one Jones, who with a party as dissolute as

himself, took the pains to ride to the Hoarkills, where in derision and

contempt of the duke's authority, bound the magistrates and inhabitants,

dispitefully treated them, rifled and plundered them of their goods; and

when it was demanded by what authority he acted, answered in no other

language but a cock'd pistol to his breast; which if it had spoke had

forever silenced him. I do not remember I have heard of a greater outrage

and riot committed on his majesty's subjects in America, but once before

in Maryland: You cannot but imagine his royal highness will not be

satisfied with these violent proceedings, in which the indignity rebounds

on him; neither can you but believe it is as easy an undertaking, for me

to retaliate the same affront on Jones's head, and accomplices, as he did

on those indefencible inhabitants: But I rather chuse to have first a more

calm redress from you; to whom I now appeal, and from whom may in justice

expect that right in the castigation of Jones cum socies, that your nature

and the law has provided for; otherwise I must apply myself to such other

remedies as the exigence of this indignity shall persuade me to: Thus

leaving it to your consideration, I shall remain your very humble servant,




Governor Lovelace also wrote to Capt. Carre upon this occasion:




The letters you sent by the express over land came safe to my hands, with

the inclosed relation and papers concerning the Hoarkill, and the

Marylanders forcibly possessing themselves of the place, as also of the

goods and estates of some of the inhabitants, of which we had some rumours

before, but did not give much credit to it; supposing what was done

before, to be the rash action of some private person; not thinking the

authority of Maryland would invade his royal highness's territories, which

he hath been possessd of for near eight years, without giving the least

overture of it to me, who am his royal highness's deputy: Their former

violent action and force, upon those poor unarmd people, together with the

particulars of their plunders, I had immediate opportunity of transmitting

to his royal highness by a ship then bound away for London, the which I

made use of, and recommended their case; and I hope it hath long e'er this

arrived to his hands; so that some directions about it may be expected in

a short time; 'till when I think it best for the present to leave matters

there as they are; but as to the cloud which likewise hangs over your

heads at Delaware, which it is said they are making preparations to

invade; my instructions and orders to you, and the officers in general,

are, that you put yourselves in the best posture of defence possibly you

can, by fitting up the fort in the town, keeping your companies in arms,

both there and up the river; who are to provide themselves with fitting

ammunition; and that all soldiers be at an hour's warning upon any alarm

or order given; and that at the town especially, you make your guards as

strong as you can, and keep a strict watch; and if any enemy comes to

demand the place, that you first desire to know their authority and

commission, and how it comes to pass those of Maryland should now make

such an invasion, after so long quiet possession of those parts by his

royal highness's deputies, under his before the date of the lord

Baltimore's patent, whom they never disturbed by arms, and whose right is

now devolved upon the duke. Stand well upon your guard, and do not begin

with them, but if they first break the peace by firing upon your guards,

or any such hostile action, then use all possible means to defend

yourselves and the place, and command all his majesty's good subjects to

be aiding and assisting to you; who I hope will not be wanting to their

abilities: In all matters of concern, you are to take advice of the chief

officers there.


"This will come to you by your bailiff, Mr. Peter Alricks, who is

hastening over land, to secure his affairs there, in this portending

invasion, and to give his best help for the safeguard of the place, and his

royal highness's interest upon all occasions: Fail not to send an express

to me, by whom I shall give you such further directions and assistance as

will be requisite; and if occasion should be, will come over myself in

person; though the spring would be more suitable for me than a winter

voyage; so recommending all things to your care and vigilance, of which

I expect a good account: I conclude, being your very loving friend,


"Francis Lovelace.


"Fort James, in New-York, this 7th October 1672."


The inhabitants at New-Castle and the Hoarkills, also suffered considerable

losses, by Dutch privateers plundering their effects. For reparation, they

were permitted by the government to lay an imposition, and power given to

the magistrates, to levy and receive upon each anchor of strong liquors

spent or disposed of among them, the value of four guilders in wampum,11

but this to continue for one year only, as a tryal of its utility.


Wampum was the chief currency of the country; great quantities had been

formerly brought in, but the Indians had earned so much away, it was now

grown scarce; and this was thought to be owing to its low value. To

increase it, the governor and council at York issued a proclamation in

1673, that instead of eight white and four black, six white and three

black wampums should pass in equal value as a stiver or penny; and three

times so much the value in silver. This proclamation was published at

Albany, Eusopus, Delaware, Long-Island, and parts adjacent.


Mention was made that Sir George Carteret by his instructions to governor

Carteret, confirmed the original concessions with additions and

explanations: These bore date the 13th of July 1674: Among other things

they direct, that the governor and council should allow eighty acres per

head, to settlers above ten miles from the sea, the Delaware, or other

river, navigable with boats; and to those that settled nearer, sixty

acres: That the land should be purchased from the Indians, as occasion

required, by the governor and council, in the name of the proprietors, who

were to be repaid by the settlers with charges:12 That all strays of

beasts at land, and wrecks at sea, should belong to the proprietor; and

that, all persons discovering any such thing, should have satisfaction for

their pains and care, as the governor and council might think fit.


1 Sir George Carteret was governor of Jersey, and held it for K. Charles

II., in the troubles of 1649, expelled the house of commons, in 1669 for

confused accounts, as chamberlain. Smollet. Treasurer of the navy, and

vice-chamberlain of the king's household. Clarendon.


2 Vide. Appendix, Number I.


3 The date of the Dutch settlement, will be nearly ascertained by the

following extract. - "As some unknown country further southward, about

Hudson's river was in their view (meaning the Plymouth colony) when they

engaged in this adventurous voyage, Mr. Morton who published his memorial

in 1620 tells us, he had then lately sure intelligence that the Dutch

intending to settle a colony there of their own, privately hired the

master of the ship to contrive delays in England, then to steer them to

these northern coasts, and there under pleas of shoals and winter to

discourage them from venturing farther. Agreeable to this, while the

English Leydeners (i.e., the said Plymouth company) were preparing for

their voyage, as Capt. Dormer returned from Virginia to New-England, he

met certain Hollanders, sailing for Hudson's river, where they had had a

trade for several years. Prince's N. E. Chronol., p. 83, 84."


4 This is what is commonly called the Elizabeth-Town grant.


5 This in 1672 was supplied by particular instructions directing that the

governor and council should purchase all lands from the Indians and be

reimbursed by the settlers, as they made their purchases.


6 Richard Hartshorne, a considerable setler at Middletown, who came over

in this year had like to have experienced some disadvantage from this

neglect in the patentees of that town, "The Indian," says he, "came to my

house, and laid their hands on the post and frame of the house and said

that house was theirs they never had any thing for it and told me if I

would not buy the land I must be gone. But I minded it not thinking it was

Davis's land and they wanted to get something of me they at last told me

they would kill my cattle and burn my hay if I would not buy the land nor

be gone; then I went to the Patentees which were James Grover, Richard

Stout, John Bound, and Richard Gibbons, they told me it was never bought,

nor had the Indians any thing for it. Nicolls desired of them and the

Indians also, only to have leave to set a trading house, and at that time

they did not intend any one should have the land, but keep it for the use

of the country, aways giving leave for any man to trade with goods and not

otherwise; but I told them I would not live on those terms, and not only

so, but it was dangerous, for the Indians threatened to kill my cattle

they told me no man had power to buy, but the pitentees, and they would

buy it; thus it continued some months. I considered the thing as well as I

then was capable, and went to Gravesend and bought William Goulder out,

and when I came back the Indians were at me and I did. James Grover,

Richard Stout, Samuel Spicer were at Wake-cake, when I bought Wake-cake

and paid for it, I being then a Patentce as well as the rest.


7 That is the English here spoken of.


8 Other accounts say in Delaware, nigh Christeen, but this is most likely

to be true.


9 It is not our business to enter particularly into these disturbances;

they went in several instances to disreputable lengths. Governor Andros of

York, in 1680, undertook to dispute governor Carteret of Jersey's

commission, and sending to Elizabeth-Town an armed force, seized and

carried him prisoner to New-York.


10 The upper island situate partly between Burlington and Bristol,

afterwards taken up by a proprietary right, by Robert Stacy, and by him

given to Burlington; and in 1682, confirm'd by a proprietary law, for the

use of a free school forever. It is detach'd from the main by a little

channel occasion'd by the waters of Essiscunk creek. When Gookin, a former

governor of Pennsylvania, was about obtaining a grant of the islands in

Delaware, it is said the lords of trade excepted this in their report to

the king and inconsiderable as to value compared with many of the others,

yet long possession and some improvements, have rendered it useful to



11 Eight white wampum or four black, passed at this time as a stiver,

twenty stivers made what they called a guilder, which was about six pence

present currency. The white wampum was worked out of the inside of the

great conques into the form of a bead, and perforated to string on

leather. The black or purple was worked out of the inside of the mussell

or clam-shell, they were sometimes wove as broad as one's hand, and about

two feet long; these the Indians call belts, and commonly give and receive

at treaties, as seals of their friendship: For lesser matters a single

string is given. Every bead is of a known value, and a belt of a less

number is made to equal one of a greater, by so many as is wanting

fastened to the belt by a string.


12 A paragraph of this fort, is also inserted in one of the letters of

instruction from lord Berkely and Sir George Carteret, in conjunction, in