History of Nova Cæsarea


The Colonial History of New Jersey


by Samuel Smith


Published by Authority

of the State of New Jersey

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1890,


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.


Trenton, New Jersey

William S Sharp













   CHAP. I.

   A brief view of the discovery of America, and of the present

   prevailing opinion respecting the manner it originally became peopled.


   CHAP. II.

   An account of the country on Delaware and the North-River, while the

   first was in possession of the Dutch and Swedes.



   The particulars of the English conquest, in 1664; and the transactions

   afterwards, respecting the inhabitants on Delaware; The arrival of

   Francis Lovelace, as governor; part of his administration, and

   description of the Hoarkills.

   CHAP. IV.

   King Charles the second, and duke of York's grants, whence lord Berkeley

   and Sir George Carteret became seized of New-Jersey; The first

   constitution of government under them; The settlement of Bergen,

   Middletown, Shrewsbury, and Elizabeth-Town: Philip Carteret appointed

   governor of Jersey; The Indian purchase of Elizabeth-Town, by the

   settlers; and the first general Indian purchase by the proprietors, &c.


   CHAP. V.

   Major Andross appointed governor of New-York; Takes possession at

   Delaware; Arrival of the first English settlers to West-Jersey, under

   the duke of York's title; Lord Berkeley assigns his moiety of New-Jersey

   to Byllinge, and he in trust to others; Their letter and first

   commission; New-Jersey divided into the provinces East and West Jersey;

   and the declaration of the West-Jersey proprietors.


   CHAP. VI.

   Arrival of more settlers to West-Jersey; Their difficulties; Their

   purchases from the Indians; They lay out a town; Some of their first

   sentiments of the country; and an account of the duke of York's two last

   grants, being for the provinces East and West New-Jersey separately.



   Letters from some of the settlers of West-Jersey; and arguments against

   the customs imposed at the Hoarkill by the governor of New-York.



   The first form of government in West-Jersey under the proprietors; The

   first laws they made; The method of regulating land affairs; and a

   further account of the Indians found in the first settled parts of these



   CHAP. IX.

   Another ship arrives at West-Jersey; Proceedings of the general assembly

   of West-Jersey; Sir George Carteret's death; Conveyances to the twelve

   Eastern proprietors; Their proposals and regulations in several

   respects; particularly in disposing of lands and building a town at Ambo

   point; The twelve proprietors each take a partner, and thence are called

   the twenty-four; to whom the duke of York makes a third and last grant;

   The twenty-four establish the council of proprietors of East-Jersey, on

   the footing it now is; A general view of the improvements in East-Jersey

   in 1682; A compendium of some of the first laws passed at

   Elizabeth-Town; Doubts started whether the government of West-Jersey was

   granted with the soil; Jenings continued governor of West-Jersey; and

   laws now passed there.


   CHAP. X.

   Robert Barclay appointed governor of East-Jersey, and T. Rudyard deputy;

   Letters from Rudyard, S. Groome, Lawrie, and others, concerned in that



   CHAP. XI.

   Manner of the West-Jersey government in 1684; Their unsettled state and

   succession of governors; Danger of suffering for want of food in 1687;

   The division line run by G. Keith; an agreement between the governors

   Coxe and Barclay; Alteration in the manner of locating lands in West

   Jersey, and the method now in use fixed; No person in West-Jersey to

   purchase from the Indians, without the consent of the council of

   proprietors; and instructions respecting deeds and warrants for taking

   up lands.



   A flood at Delaware falls; Death and character of Thomas Olive, Thomas

   Gardiner and John Woolston; Commotions in East and West Jersey;

   Surrender of the two governments to queen Anne; Her acceptance thereof;

   and her commission to Lord Cornbury.



   Instructions from queen Anne to Lord Cornbury.



   Observations on Lord Cornbury's instructions, and the privileges

   originally granted to the settlers; with abstracts of some of them.


   CHAP. XV.

   Lord Cornbury convenes the first general assembly after the surrender;

   His speech, their address, and other proceedings; Queen Anne's

   proclamation for ascertaining the rates of coin; Cornbury dissolves the

   assembly, and meets a new one to his mind; Their proceedings and

   dissolution; A summary of the establishment and practice of the council

   of proprietors of West-Jersey; Another assembly called; who remonstrate

   the grievances of the province.



   Lord Cornbury's answer to the assembly's remonstrance.





   The assembly's reply to lord Cornbury's answer to their remonstrance.



   Memorial of the West-Jersey proprietors residing in England, to the

   lords commissioners for trade and plantations; The lieutenant governor,

   with some of the council, address the queen; The last meeting of

   assembly under Cornbury's administration; They continue their

   complaints; Samuel Jenings's death and character.



   Lord Lovelace arrives governor; Convenes a new assembly; they apply to

   him for a hearing on the subject of the lieutenant governor and

   council's application to the queen; His death; is succeeded by the

   lieutenant governor Ingoldsby; The first paper currency; Arrival of

   governor Hunter; A short account of the first expedition to Canada;

   A new assembly chosen; Their first session in Hunter's time.


   CHAP. XX.

   Representation of the general assembly to governor Hunter and his




   A session of general assembly; A second expedition to Canada; Meeting of

   a new assembly; They quarrel; Some members designedly absent themselves;

   Expell'd the house; Several of them again returnd, and refused seats; A

   fruitful session at Crosswicks; Last session in Hunter's time; An act

   passed for running the division line between East and West-Jersey;

   William Burnet arrives governor; An uncommon wet harvest; Governor

   Burnet meets a new assembly.



   Occurrences since the year 1721.



   The present state of Indian affairs in New-Jersey.



   A short geographical description of the province; and additional view of

   its present state.





   NUMB. I.

   The concessions and agreements of the lords proprietors of the province

   of New Caesaria, or New-Jersey, to and with all and every of the

   adventurers, and all such as shall settle or plant there.


   NUMB. II.

   The concessions and agreements of the proprietors, freeholders and

   inhabitants of the province of West New Jersey, in America.



   A brief account of the province of East-Jersey, in America, published by

   the present proprietors, for information of all such persons who are or

   may be inclined to settle themselves, families and servants, in that



   NUMB. IV.

   Governor Coxe's narrative relating to the division line, directed to the

   council of proprietors of West-Jersey.


   NUMB. V.

   The council of proprietors of West-Jersey to governor Burnet.


   NUMB. VI.

   Reasons and proposals for an amendment of the quintipartite line, and

   the act made for the confirmation thereof.



   Minute of the council of proprietors, held at the city of Perth Amboy,

   August 17, 1742.



   The remonstrance and humble petition of the inhabitants of East



   NUMB. IX.

   The memorial of the proprietors of East New-Jersey.


   NUMB. X.

   Opinion and answer to the lord commissioners, &c.


   NUMB. XI.

   Memorial of the East Jersey proprietors to the lords of trade.



   The petition of the proprietors of East and West Jersey, to the lords




   Representation of the lords of trade to the lords justices.



   The memorial of the proprietors of East and West Jersey.






   John Tatham, New Jersey's Missing Governor by John D. Mccormick






Samuel Smith, author of the "History of New Jersey," was eldest son of

Richard Smith, esquire, of Burlington, member for twenty years of the

Assembly of West Jersey, and a flourishing merchant in Burlington and

Philadelphia. Richard Smith was the only son of Samuel Smith the elder, of

Bramham, West Riding of Yorkshire, England, who came to New Jersey in

1694, and was for several years a member of the Assembly. The father of

the first Samuel Smith, Richard Smith of Bramham, Yorkshire, was one of

the original proprietaries of West Jersey, and he and his two eldest sons,

John and Daniel, brothers of the elder Samuel Smith, signed as

proprietaries the "Concessions and Agreements of the Proprietors and

People of West Jersey," the fundamental constitution of the province.


To the above-mentioned John Smith was allotted one of the ten original

town lots of the "London Proprietors," in Burlington, with its annexed

wood or forest lot.


Our author, who was born "12th mo., 13th, A.D. 1720," engaged, as a young

man, in his father's business as a West India merchant, and, for a time,

removed to Philadelphia. He finally settled at Burlington, where his town-

house was the one since known as the "Coleman" house. The fine estate of

"Hickory Grove," a little beyond the "London Bridge," was his country-seat

or "plantation." He married in the "eleventh" month, 1741, Jane, daughter

of Joseph Kirkbride, and by her had several children.


He was a man of most benevolent heart, and of a conscientious uprightness

and exactness in the discharge of duty. His reading was extensive and

accurate; the several historical works composed by him, showing the fruits

of careful research, and a clear and agreeable style. He was the

originator of the benevolent efforts which resulted in the colonization of

the remnant of the New Jersey Indians at the "Brotherton" settlement; drew

up, in 1757, the constitution of the "New Jersey Society for Helping the

Indians," and signed its subscription list with twenty pounds. In all the

family relations, as son, brother, husband and father, Samuel Smith was

most exemplary, and was besides a prominent and useful member of his

religious community, "The Friends."


In 1765, Samuel Smith had the press of the "King's Printer" moved to

Burlington for the purpose of printing his "History of New Jersey," as

appears by the following extract:


"In 1764, James Parker, printer to the King for the Province of New

Jersey, compiled and printed a Conductor Generalis for Justices of the

Peace, he then holding that office in Middlesex county, and the following

year moved his press from Woodbridge to Burlington for the accommodation

of the author of the History of New Jersey, (Smith), but on the completion

of the work it was returned to the former place." (Whitehead's

Contributions to East Jersey History, p. 376.)


Samuel Smith filled some of the most important public offices in the

Province of New Jersey. He was, for many years, a member and Secretary of

the King's Council, Treasurer of the Province, &c., &c. He died in 1776.

His brother Richard was a member of the Continental Congress.





Although among the following Papers there are some of consequence in point

of interest to most concerned in the province of New-Jersey, several of

them were not to be found on record in the publick offices, several were

scattered in different provinces, others could not be easily obtained,

some tho' in print formerly were in but few hands, some never made

publick, and many in danger of being lost; on this account whatever

success may attend this undertaking as to the general design, or

disposition of the facts, 'tis some satisfaction, that the labour of

collecting them cannot be altogether useless.


Whoever will be at the trouble of an enquiry into the general inexperience

and methods of colonizing formerly, especially at the time the settlements

here were first attempted under grants, will find but little reason to

doubt, that views of permanent stability to religious and civil freedom,

must have been the inducement to the original adventurers to think of such

a voyage. The New-England governments had before been considerably settled

from motives of a like kind; these, tho' near forty years later in their

removal, were also protestant dissenters, and involved in the general

insecurity, that such with reason apprehended in the reign of king Charles

the second; and the actual sufferings of many, through the mistaken policy

of that time, merely for a free exercise of their religious sentiments,

with their own accounts of their removal, renters it as to them

indisputable; and in this, as they do not appear to have been charg'd with

any indirect violation of religious integrity, so no instance occurs of

dissatisfaction among themselves, tho' many of them were remarkably tender

on that head; with the motives above, some of them had without doubt, a

distant prospect also of improving their estates; but this could not be

the case so much at first as afterwards.


However smooth the passage may look now, it must be a reasonable

supposition, that persons and families, who lived well (which was the

circumstance of many of the settlers of this province) found it no

inconsiderable trial, to unsettle and remove 3000 miles; besides parting

with the usual connections of friendship and neighbourhood, it was in a

great measure an unprov'd experiment; and then much out of the common

course of things; the navigation also to this part of the continent, for

want of experience, look'd difficult, and the wilderness formidable; but

whatever were their motives, they successively encountered the hazards and

hardships to which the enterprize was exposed; and, at their own expense,

by the blessing of divine providence on their labour, frugality and

industry, laid the foundation for the present improvement of territory to

the mother country; which, tho' not in many respects to be compared to

colonies of greater extent and growth, is nevertheless a link in the chain

of some considerable importance.


That a century should pass, and very little appear abroad of what the

settlers here have been doing, is not so much to be wondered at, when

their difficulties in procuring the conveniences of living are consider'd;

but this will hardy be allow'd, when the too general negligence as to

particular rights of individuals, and the reputation of civil policy comes

in question: 'till very lately, a variety of matters of that kind, were as

much secrets to most of the inhabitants, as they commonly are to

strangers; and yet in many parts of the province, are justly made the

subject of general complaint.


Whether the endeavours here used for bringing these into one historical

view, will sufficiently answer the purposes of a more general information,

must now be submitted to experience; they were undertaken with hopes of

service to the province, and if found but in a small degree contributing

to that, the end is so far answered: With this view, they were several

years since designed for the publick, and nearly prepared; but other

occasions interfering, necessarily delayed their appearance much longer

than was expected. Being sent to the press sometime in the last spring, no

transaction that hath happened since, could be included, or is in any

respect alluded to: On a continuation, these will of course follow in

their places.


To a collection principally intended to consist of a plain state of facts,

much need not be premised; this may with justice be said, that through the

whole, the strictest impartiality has been attended to, and if in other

respects executed according to intention, they are offered to the publick,

with as few material omissions, as the present opportunities of collecting

would allow; yet the diffidence attending an attempt from papers in great

part not used before on the like occasion, would plead for some allowances

as a few mistakes, especially in dates, and other minutiae among the

smaller facts, may have escap'd, notwithstanding an assiduous care to

avoid them; but these it is hoped will not be found so considerable, as to

obstruct the service intended.


As nothing is aim'd at, more than a fair and candid representation; any

friendly hints, or materials necessary either for correction or

improvement, will be thankfully received, and the first opportunity

embrac'd to apply them accordingly.


5th October,